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Peptide Synthesis

Peptide Synthesis

In the branch of Organic Chemistry, we study about Peptide Synthesis. Peptide synthesis is all about manufacturing or producing peptides, while peptides are organic compounds which are made-up of multiple amino acids through amide bonds. In biological systems these peptides are further joined together to form long chain of peptides, these long chain of peptides is known as proteins (Amino Acids are building blocks of proteins). While the synthesis of proteins from peptides in biological systems is called protein biosynthesis.
peptide synthesis mechanism
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Peptide Synthesis MCQs

Q1. Peptide synthesis is all about manufacturing or producing ______

  • Peptides
  • Amino Acids
  • Fatty Acids
  • Glycol
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q1: Peptides

Q2. Peptides are organic compounds which are made-up of ______

  • Multiple proteins
  • Multiple fatty acids
  • Multiple amino acids
  • All of the Above
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q2: Multiple amino acids

Q3. Long chain of peptides is known as ______

  • Proteins
  • Fatty acids
  • Carbohydrates
  • Peptide Synthesis
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q3: Proteins

Q4. Synthesis of proteins from peptides in biological systems is called protein biosynthesis

  • Protein Degradation
  • Protein Biosynthesis
  • Protein Bank
  • Peptide synthesis
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q4: Protein Biosynthesis 

Q5. Carnosine is a di-peptide of ______ and histidine

  • Alpha Lysine
  • Beta Lysine
  • Alpha Alanine
  • Beta Alanine
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q5: Beta Alanine 
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Chemistry

What is Chemistry?

It is the branch of science which deals with the study of composition, properties and interaction of matter.

Definition of Chemistry

Chemistry is the scientific study of matter and substances for how they combine, separate, react or interact with each other.

Types of Chemistry

Chemistry is generally (as per basic chemistry) classified into three classes i.e. Physical chemistry, Organic chemistry and Inorganic chemistry. 

1. Physical Chemistry

Physical chemistry is the branch of chemistry. Physical Chemistry utilizes applications of physics to chemical systems to understand their physical properties.
Physical chemistry is the study of atomic, subatomic, macroscopic, microscopic or particulate phenomena in chemical systems in terms of different laws and concepts of physics. Physical chemistry applies the principles and concepts of physics such as thermodynamics, force, time, energy, motion, statistical mechanics, quantum chemistry, dynamics and equilibrium.
Physical properties of different type of chemical substances can be studied on different scales like atomic, subatomic, macroscopic and microscopic........ read more 

2. Organic Chemistry

Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry which involve the scientific study of structure, properties & reactions of organic species, compounds or organic materials, means matter have various forms found that contains carbon atoms. Study of structure of organic chemistry compounds includes use of spectroscopy techniques like IR Spectroscopy, Microwave Spectroscopy, NMR Spectroscopy, Mass Spectroscopy, X – Ray Diffraction, Electron Diffraction, Neutron Diffraction and other physical and/or chemical type of methods to examine chemical composition and chemical constitution of the organic chemistry compounds and materials to be analysed. This is article on what is organic chemistry at “chemistry notes info blog”. Study of properties of organic compound includes study of both physical properties as well as chemical properties of organic chemistry compounds, which uses the similar methods and also methods to evaluate the chemical reactivity to understand behavior of organic matter (organic sample) in its pure form (if when possible), otherwise in solution, mixture forms. Study of chemistry of organic reactions includes the searching their possibility through use in the preparations of goal molecule or compounds like natural products, medicinal drugs, polymers, solvents, etc.) by their chemical synthesis, also focused on the study of  reactivity’s of the individual organic molecules.... read more 

3. Inorganic Chemistry

Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry, which deals with the study of inorganic compounds and organo-metallic compounds. Inorganic chemistry includes study of all chemical compounds excluding organic compounds (where, organic compounds are carbon based compounds, generally having carbon-hydrogen bonds i.e. C-H bonds. 

Example of Inorganic Compound

Salt Magnesium Chloride (MgCl2) is an ionic Inorganic Compound which contains magnesium-cations Mg2+ and chloride-anions Cl

Branches of Inorganic Chemistry

Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry
Descriptive inorganic chemistry based on the arrangement and ordering of compounds based on their properties.

Coordination Chemistry

Coordination chemistry is the branch of Inorganic chemistry which deals with the study of coordination compounds or coordination complexes. A coordination compound or coordination complex contains of a central atom or ion, which is generally metallic and is known as coordination center, and get surrounded by group of bounding molecules or ions, these surrounding molecules and ions are known as ligands.

Materials Science

Material science deal with the study of materials. Study of metals, semiconductors, polymers, ceramics, nanomaterials, biomaterials and many other form of materials comes under material science. A material scientist........... read more 

4. Analytical Chemistry

Analytical Chemistry is the branch of chemistry deals with the study of material examination to separate out them into different components and identifying all components and how much these components present in material. There are different analytical methods and techniques to perform these tasks.

What is Analytical Chemistry ?

Analytical chemistry is all about, what an analytical chemist do in an analytical chemistry lab. And simply we can say that analytical chemistry is the branch of chemistry for qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis of compounds and mixtures by using different test methods and techniques like flame tests, chemical tests, precipitation... read more

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Branches of Chemistry ?

These are the some of general and important branches of chemistry-


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Organic Chemistry

Organic Chemistry

What is Organic Chemistry ?

http://chemistrynotesinfo.blogspot.in/2016/04/10-class-carbon-and-its-compounds.htmlOrganic chemistry is a branch of chemistry which involve the scientific study of structure, properties & reactions of organic species, compounds or organic materials, means matter have various forms found that contains carbon atoms. Study of structure of organic chemistry compounds includes use of spectroscopy techniques like IR Spectroscopy, Microwave Spectroscopy, NMR Spectroscopy, Mass Spectroscopy, X – Ray Diffraction, Electron Diffraction, Neutron Diffraction and other physical and/or chemical type of methods to examine chemical composition and chemical constitution of the organic chemistry compounds and materials to be analysed. This is article on what is organic chemistry at “chemistry notes info blog”. Study of properties of organic compound includes study of both physical properties as well as chemical properties of organic chemistry compounds, which uses the similar methods and also methods to evaluate the chemical reactivity to understand behaviour of organic matter (organic sample) in its pure form (if when possible), otherwise in solution, mixture forms. Study of chemistry of organic reactions includes the searching their possibility through use in the preparations of goal molecule or compounds like natural products, medicinal drugs, polymers, solvents, etc.) by their chemical synthesis, also focused on the study of  reactivity’s of the individual organic molecules. This article is about basics understanding of organic chemistry under post organic chemistry lecture notes at www.ChemistryNotesInfo.blogspot.com . Below is a 3D diagram of methane CH4 molecule in tetrahedral geometry with bond angle of 109 degree.
Structure of Methane - Organic chemistry lecture notes
Structure of Methane

 Organic Chemistry - Characterization

 To identify purity of organic compounds methods or techniques used now-days are Chromatography like HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography), GC (Gas Chromatography) and Spectroscopy like Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, Mass spectrometry, Crystallography. and old methods and techniques to identify purity of organic compounds are distillation, crystallization, and solvent extraction.

Physical Properties of Organic Compounds

These properties help in both qualitative and quantitative manner. Quantitative info includes M.P. (melting point), B.P. (boiling point), & index of refraction. Qualitative info includes odor, solubility, consistency and color.

Nomenclature in Organic Chemistry

Organic compounds are generally named in two ways i.e. traditional names and systematic names. Traditional names are parent names like for Vitamin B3, its traditional name is Niacin. Systematic names are scientific names given by IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) nomenclature system like for Vitamin B3, its systematic name by IUPAC system is Pyridin-3-Carboxylic-Acid.

Classification of Organic Compounds

Organic compounds are classified on the basis of Functional Groups, Aliphatic compounds, Aromatic compounds, Heterocyclic compounds, Polymers, Biomolecules etc.

Organic Reactions

Organic reactions are those chemical reactions which involve organic compounds.

Glucose + Fructose ------> Sucrose

Extraction of Essential Oil by Steam Distillation of Tulsi (Ocimum Basillicum)

Extraction of Essential Oil by Steam Distillation of Tulsi (Ocimum Basillicum)

Essential oils are insoluble in water and evaporate easily. We can obtain essential oil from plant tissues by distillation or extraction processes. Generally essential oils are obtain from every part of plant like stem, root, leaves, flowers, seed, branches etc. And these essential oils are used in the preparation of drugs, cosmetics and perfumes.
Holi Tulsi Plant
Ocimum Basillicum means Tulsi is an aromatic plant. Ocimum Basillicum is used to obtain essential oil useful for different application. This oil evaporates within 24 hours after applying it to our body. This essential oil helps in cure of digestion problem, strained muscles, headaches and nervous breakdowns. Due to its good medicinal properties and aroma its demand is very high in many countries. A person or company can build a small or large scale industry for the extraction of essential oil from Ocimum Basillicum (Tulsi).

Top 10 General qualitative properties of Ocimum Basillicum essential oil are given below-

essential oil extraction equipment photo1.  Appearance : Transparent fluid
2.  Color : Pale yellow
3.  Fragrance : Ocimum Basillicum’s distinctive flavor and fragrance
4.  Refractive Index on 20°C : 1.51200 to1.51900
5.  Specific Gravity on 25°C : 0.95200 to 0.97300
6.  Optical gyration on 25°C : [-] 8.85º to [-] 11.85º
7.  Well mixed with Hydroxycitronellal
8.  Insoluble in water
9.  Dissolved in paraffin oil

How to obtain oil from holi Tulsi plant?

The extraction of essential oil by steam distillation of ocimum basillicum (Tulsi) is a solid-liquid extraction process. This process completes in following steps-
Flow diagram of steam distilatillation
1.  Collect plant material and dry it if required.
2.  Fill this plant material in distillation vessel.
3.  Add water or solvent (like Ethanol, n-Hexane) in distillation vessel.
4.  Heat the mixture in well-equipped distillation vessel in control environment and controlled temperature, then
5.  Diffusion of essential oil from inside of solid material of plant to its surface occurs, then
6.  Transfer of mass from surface of plant solid material to surrounding liquid occurs, then
7.  This liquid contains essential oil which is obtained by reverse cooler.
8.  Then the collection of above liquid obtained from reverse cooler is put to stand for some time then essential oil come over water, then
9.  We perform layer separation to separate out essential oil from water, then
10.              Store this essential oil in dark, closed vessel for future use.
how to obtain Essential oil by steam distillation ?
The experimental results proves that yield of essential oil of Tulsi (Ocimum-Basillicum)  from only leaves of plant is slightly higher than from the mixture of leaves and stems (means plant crush).

What is Hyperconjugation

Definition of Hyper conjugation

What is Hyperconjugation
What is Hyperconjugation?
Hyperconjugation is stabilizing interactions that are results from interaction of electrons in a sigma (σ-bond) (usually C-H or C-C) with an adjacent empty or partially-filled p-orbital or a pi (π) orbital to give an extended molecular orbitals that increases stability of system.
Hyper-conjugation is chemistry terminology and also known as Sigma (σ) electron delocalization.
Also,
        The movement of pi (π) electrons through p-orbital pathway is the Mesomeric-effect and leads to the resonance.
        The movement of sigma (σ) electrons through adjacent pi (π) system or a carbocation is the hyperconjugation. And hyper-conjugation therefore involves the sigma (σ) electron delocalization.
definition of hyper conjugation
The electrons of sigma (σ) bond between C and H are involved in the delocalization.
In the upper structure there is no bond between C and H due to the migration of sigma (σ) bond. Hence hyperconjugation is also known as “no bond resonance”.
But,
       This does not mean that the H-atom is completely detached from structure.  As it indicates the some degree of ionic character in C-H bond and some single bond character between C-C double bond.

When we see Toluene structure, there is a partial negative-charge on the C-atom bonded to the methyl (-CH3) group and the methyl C-atom is slightly positive-charge. This is due to hyperconjugation and has proved by the X-Ray diffraction studies.
Toluene is an example of "heterovalent hyperconjugation" or "sacrificial hyperconjugation", because the contributing structure (of toluene in hyperconjugation) contains one two-electron bond less than normal Lewis formula for the toluene.
"heterovalent hyperconjugation" or "sacrificial hyperconjugation"
Hyperconjugation can account for the (I-effect) Inductive effect. In Toluene, methyl group exhibits the +I effect that is responsible for the polarization of the electron (e-) density.

The interaction between filled pi (π) or p-orbitals and adjacent antibonding sigma (σ *) orbitals gives "negative hyperconjugation", example of negative hyperconjugation is fluoroethyl anion.
The interaction between sigma (σ) bonds and an unfilled or partially filled pi (π) or p-orbital gives "isovalent hyperconjugation", example of isovalent hyperconjugation is tert-butyl cation.

What are the requirements for the Hyper-Conjugation?

Requirements for the Hyper-Conjugation is described below-
  • Hyper-Conjugation exists in the carbocations, free radicals and alkenes and arenes.
  • The alpha (α) C-atom next to the pi (π) bond (double bond) or C free radical or C+ (carbocation) should be sp3 hybridized with at least one H-atom bonded to it.
Hyper-Conjugation exists in the carbocations, free radicals and alkenes and arenes

What is the effect of hyperconjugation on chemical structure?

  • Due to hyperconjugation C-C single bond gains some double bond character while C=C double bond gains some single bond character.
  • Therefore C=C double bond length in the substituted alkenes at all times greater than in ehtene.

Based on the valence-bond-model of the bonding, hyper-conjugation can be described as the "double bond- no bond resonance" but really it is not what we would say "normally" resonance.

What is main difference between resonance and hyperconjugation?

Resonance involves pi orbitals but Hyperconjugation involves a sigma orbital, usually a C-H or C-C bond.

what is chemistry

What Is Chemistry


Definition of Chemistry ?


It is the branch of science which deals with the study of composition, properties and interaction of matter.
Now you may have question or queries related to matter like.....

What Is Matter ?

Anything which has mass and occupies space known as matter. Ex:- Water, pencil, pen, book etc.

Physical states of matter

=> Solid, liquid, gas.
Physical state
Definite volume
Definite shape
Example
Solid
Yes
Yes
Book, pen
Liquid
Yes
No
Water, milk
Gas
No
No
CO2, Air

Temperature & pressure effect on physical state


What are basic constituents of matter ?

Basic constituents of matter are atoms and molecules.

Note:- But in movies and serials or general discussion you heard about chemistry that chemistry is "the complex psychological or emotional interaction between people."

Branches of Chemistry ?

These are the some of general and important branches of chemistry-
Physical Chemistry
Organic Chemistry
Inorganic Chemistry
Nuclear Chemistry
Analytical Chemistry
Wet Chemistry
Bio Chemistry

Other Fields of Chemistry like- 

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Top 10 Chemistry Websites

List of Top 10 Chemistry Websites

Given below is the list of top ten chemistry websites. These top 10 chemistry websites are the best websites to learn chemistry as these chemistry sites provide all chemistry conten in literature and also explain topics via images, videos and 2D - 3D diagrams, charts and many more innovative education tools to clear your doughts. We are also developing our content to provide best of us in your services.
List of Top Ten Chemistry Websites
Top 10 Chemistry Websites

1. Wikipedia

Wlikipedia is free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia contains so many articles related to chemistry. Wikipedia do not charges any fees to users to read articles and it have large collection of information related to chemistry.

2. NIST Chemistry WebBook

NIST have great Database of chemical and physical properties. Large searches on NIST are given below- General and Physical Property Based Searches
•    Formula
•    Name
•    IUPAC identifier
•    CAS registry number
•    Reaction
•    Author
•    Structure
•    Ion energetics properties
•    Vibrational and electronic energies
•    Molecular weight

3. Chemicool

Chemicool Periodic Table provide information related to Periodic Table and Elements. On home page of Chemicool you see a periodic table, when you click on any element in this periodic table you get a new webpage which shows chemistry information related to that element. For example if you click on H i.e. Hydrogen element than you get information about its ‘Data Zone- Classification, Color, Atomic weight, State, Melting point, Boiling point, Electrons, Protons, Neutrons in most abundant isotope, Electron shells, Electron configuration, Density @ 20oC and more’, Discovery, Facts, Appearance and Characteristics, Uses, Abundance and Isotopes, References.

4. The Molecule of the Month

The Molecule of the Month website added a molecule to its database monthly and publish it on its website.

5. Some Chemistry Stuff

This website is very useful as it contain great chemistry stuff, which is classified in following categories-

A Virtual Chemical Element Collection

This part contain photos and information for so many elements like Carbon, Fluorine, Chlorine, Technetium, Promethium and many others.

Home Chemistry Experiments

This part contain interesting chemistry experiments.

Atomic Spectra

This part contain information and resources to download windows program, which is useful to draws Atomic Spectra of elements.

More Chemistry Links

This part contain information and links to some helpful Chemistry-Websites.

6. Science Geek

Science Geek is also another good chemistry website which provide PowerPoint Presentation and Videos related to chemistry. 

7. Chalkbored

Chemistry 11

It is very useful website for  chemistry students of Schools, because this website teaches students with worksheets, labs, handouts, and Power-Point presentations.

Chemistry 12

It is very useful website for  chemistry students of Schools, because this website teaches students with worksheets, labs, handouts, and Power-Point presentations.

8. eMolecule

eMolecule is a good website to draw structure of chemicals or molecules online.
WebElement is an another important chemistry website for the periodic table of the elements. On WebElement website you get information from these pages- The essentials, Contents, History, Uses, Crystal structures, Physics, Thermochemistry, Atoms, Atom and ion sizes, Electronegativity, Geology, Biology, Compounds, Chemistry, Compound properties, Isotopes.
ChemTutor provides chemistry help for high school, college and university students to learn chemistry. ChemTutor have large collection of topics related to chemistry.
CHEMISTRY
Royal Society of Chemistry leads chemistry community and advancing excellence in the chemical sciences. Royal Society of Chemistry promote, support and celebrate chemistry.

Aldol Reaction

Aldol Addition / Aldol Reaction

Aldol Addition Reaction
 The name ALDOL is taken from Aldehyde and Alcohol.
When the enolate of an aldehyde or a ketone reacts at the α-carbon with the carbonyl of another molecule under basic or acidic conditions to obtain β-hydroxy aldehyde or ketone, this reaction is called Aldol Reaction.

Mechanism of Aldol Reaction

organic chemistry notes - Aldol reaction Mechanism
Aldol Reaction Mechanism - Acid Catalyzed and Base Catalyzed
 If we control kinetic condition for aldol reactions then mixed aldol addition reactions may be used for the preparation of the adducts that can not be obtain selectively.
This method begins with irreversible production of  kinetic enolate, for example by employ the sterically or delayed lithium-amide-base like LDA known as lithiumdiisopropylamide and abbreviated as LDA.
named reaction notes


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Branches of Chemistry

Chemistry is branch of Science, which is further divided into many branches like-

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