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12 Class Chapter 16 - Chemistry In Everyday Life

Chemistry In Everyday Life


                    Drugs that binds to the receptor site and inhibits its natural function is known as antagonists.


               Drugs that mimic the natural messenger by switching on the receptor is called as agonists.


               Its example is Metal Hydroxide.


                        Its example is Terfinadine, Cimetidine. Histamine stimulates the secretion of pepsin and HCl in stomach.

Neurological Active Drugs


                       Chemical compound used for the treatment of stress or severe mental diseases. These relive anxiety, stress, irritability, depression, tension by inducing a sense of well being. Examples- Iproniazid,  Equanil, Barbiturates are hypnotic that is sleep producing agents.


                 These drugs reduce or abolish pain without causing mental confusion, paralysis and some other disturbances. Example- Asprin, Analgin, Paracitamol.
Narcotics Analgesics are Morphine, Heroine.


                   These drugs inhibit the growth of microorganisms or kill the microorganisms. Example- Penicillin, Tetracycline, Imipenam, Meropenam, Ampicillin, Chloramphinicol.


                  Furacine, Soframycine, Dettol (Chloroxylenol + Terpinol), Bithional.


                     Apply to lifeless objects. Chlorine(0.2 to 0.4 ppm), SO2 in low concentration. 
NOTE: "0.2% solution of phenol is antiseptic while its 1% solution is disinfectant."

Antifertility Drugs

                                Drug used to control population. Example- Norethindrone, Novestrol.

Food Preservative

                                Prevent spoilage of food due to microbial growth. Example- Sodium Benzoate, table salt.

Gold Number

                      It is the calculation of the weight of the protective colloid in milligram to be added to 10 ml of gold solution to prevent its coagulation when 1 ml of 10% of NaCl solution is added to it rapidly.
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Discovery of Electron

Discovery of Electron

Sir J.J.Thomson and W.Crooks did many experiments with discharge tube for the discovery of electron.
Discharge tube have tube like shape made from glass with two electrodes (Cathode -ve and Anode +ve) in vacuum created by vacuum pump connected to discharge tube. High electric potential is applied between two electrodes.
9th class chemistry notes of structure of atom - Discharge Tube 
Discharge Tube
Air is bad conductor of electricity so vacuum pump is connected to reduce pressure to 0.02mm inside discharge tube currents starts flowing between electrodes and light is emitted. On further reducing pressure in discharge tube greenish yellow color fluorescence occur. As these rays emerging from cathode, Sir J.J.Thomson named them as cathode rays.
Deflection of cathode rays towards positively charged plate in electric field proves that these rays carry negatively charged particles.
These negatively charged particles are named as electrons.

Properties of Cathode Rays

1. Cathode rays always travel in straight line.
Production of Cathode Rays
2. Velocity of cathode rays and velocity of light are approximately equal.
3. On applying electric field in the path of cathode rays, cathode rays turn towards +vely charged plate that proves cathode rays are made up from negatively charged particles.
4. Cathode rays rotate light wheel placed in their path that proves cathode rays are made from particles having mass.
5. Cathode rays pass through thin metal foil and it gets slightly heated up by action.
6. These rays produce fluorescence at walls of glass tube.
7. Cathode rays ionize gases and also affect photographic plate.
8. When these rays strike any metal with high melting point (like tungsten W) they produces X-Rays.

Chemistry 11th & 12th Formula in pdf

11th & 12th Classes Formula in PDF

Below is the list of Chemical Formulas Resources

1. Chemistry formulas for Atoms, Molecules and Chemical Arithmetic Part I

2. Chemistry formulas for Atoms, Molecules and Chemical Arithmetic Part II

3. Chemistry Formulas for Structure of Atom Part 1

4. Chemistry Formula for Atomic Structure Part 2


To download Chemistry 11th & 12th Classes Formula in PDF click on the download button below or just copy and paste the below link in your internet browser.

This above link contain pdf of formulas of  classes 11th and 12th and also of B.Sc and M.Sc formula and symbols. Read our notes to get first class result. With our first class notes and your hard work, you create your signing future by get selected in IIT, PMT, PAT, AIMS, PET, NET, GATE and many more entrance exams........

Below is the List of all Chemical Formulas and Chemical Compounds

like inorganic compounds, biomolecules, chemical formulas, elements, alchemical substances, biomolecules, compounds, minerals, organic compounds, polyatomic ions, chemical compounds, chemical substances, alloys, alkanes.

What is Adsorption ?

What is Adsorption ?

Adsorption: - The accumulation of molecular species at the surface rather than bulk of solid or liquid is called Adsorption.

Mechanism of Adsorption

Inside the Adsorbent (in bulk) the force acting between the particles are mutually balanced but on the surface, the particles are not surrounded by atoms or molecules of their kind on all sides and hence they posses attraction force so particle stick on the surface of the Adsorbent.
The extent of adsorption increases with increase in surface area per unit mass of the adsorbent at a given temperature and pressure.

Heat of adsorption: - With increase in heat Adsorption process decreases.

Adsorption equilibrium: -

                                     As the molecules of the adsorb ate are held on the surface of the solid adsorbent.
Entropy decreases, i.e. DS is negative
For the process of adsorption to occur, DG must be negative which is possible only when, DS keeps on decreasing and TDS keeps on increasing till ultimately DH becomes equal.
To TDS so that DG = 0, this state is called adsorption equilibrium.

Types of adsorption

There are two types of adsorption

        i.            Physical Adsorption or physisorption: -  

                                                                         If accumulation of gas on the surface of solid occurs on account of weak vanderwalls forces is called physical Adsorption.

      ii.            Chemical Adsorption or chemosorption: - 

                                                                         When gas molecules or atoms are held to the surface (solid) by chemical bonds, the Adsorption is called Chemical Adsorption.

1)      Lack of specificity: - A given surface of an Adsorbent does not show any preference for a particular gas as the vanderwalls forces are universal.
2)      Nature of Adsorbate: - The amount of gas Adsorbed by a solid depends on the nature of the gas.
3)      Reversible nature: - Physisorption is reversible because adsorbate may be removed by decreasing pressure.
4)      Surface area of Adsorbent: - Physisorption increases with increase in surface area.
5)      Enthalpy of Adsorption: - Physical Adsorption is exothermic process but its enthalpy of adsorption is low (20-40 KJ mol-1).
1)      High specificity: - It is high specific because it occurs if there is some possibility of chemical bonding.
2)      Irreversibility: - As chemisorptions involve compound formation, so it is usually irreversible process.
3)      Temperature: - Chemisorptions increases with increase in temperature after saturation starts decreasing.
4)      Pressure: - it is also increases with increase in pressure.
5)      Surface area: - chemisorptions increases with increase in surface area.
6)      Enthalpy of Adsorption: - Enthalpy of chemisorptions is high (80-240 KJ mol-1) as it involves chemical bond formation.
                                 The variation in the amount of gas Adsorbed by the adsorbent with pressure at constant temperature can be expressed by means of a curve termed as Adsorption isotherm.

12 Class Chapter 15- Polymers

Polymer & Polymerization

Condensation Polymer: Nylon-6-6, Terylene.
Addition Polymer: Polythene, Neoprene.

Polymer Classification

Polymer Classification on the basis of Source:

1.    Natural Polymer: Protein, Cellulose, Rubber.
2.    Semi-synthetic Polymer: Cellulose Derivatives as cellulose acetate (Rayon), Cellulose Nitrate.
3.    Synthetic Polymer: Plastic (Polyethene), Synthetic Fibers ( Nylon 6-6), Buna-S.

Polymer Classification on the basis of Structure:

1.    Linear Polymer: High Density Polythene, Polyvinyl Chloride.
2.    Branched Chain Polymer: Low Density Polythene.
3.     Cross Linked or Network Polymer: Bakelite, Melamine.

Polymer Classification on the basis of Molecular Forces:

1.    Elastomers: Weak intermolecular forces. eg.- Natural Rubber, Synthetic Rubber.
2.    Fibers: Strong intermolecular forces. eg.- Polyamides (Nylon6-6), Polyesters (Terylene).
3.    Thermoplastic: Polythene, Polystyrene.
4.    Thermosetting: Bakelite, Urea Formaldehyde Resins.

Lower Density Polyethene  (L.D.P.) : prepared at 1000-2000 atm pressure, 350-570 Kelvin Temperature and O2 peroxide inhibitor.

Higher Density Polyethene  (H.D.P.) : prepared at 6-7 atm pressure, 333-343 Kelvin Temperature and Zieglar Natta Catalyst.

Monomer Formula
1.    Teflon
Oil seals, Gasket
2.    Polyacrylonitrile

Commercial Fibers
3.    Terylene or Decron
Ethylene Glycol
Teryphthalic Acid

Commercial Fibers
4.    Nylon 6,6


5.    Nylon 6
Adipic Acid


Making Sheets, bristles of brushes, textile industry, tyre cords, fabrics, ropes etc.
6.    Phenol Formaldehyde Polymer
i.                   Novolac
Phenol + Formaldehyde
Used in paints
ii.                 Bakelite
Phenol + Formaldehyde

Comb, Electric switches
7.    Malamine Formaldehyde Polymer
Malamine + Formaldehyde

Unbreakable crockery
8.    Buna S
1,3-Butadiene + Styrene

Auto tyres, cables insulation, floor tiles

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