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Terminology


Chemistry Terminology

Definitions of Scientific Terms and Other Chemistry Information

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    Chemical-any substance that has a defined composition
    Chemical reaction- the process by which one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances
    States of matter-the physical forms of matters, which are solid, liquid, gas, and plasma
      Reactant- a substance or molecule that participates in a chemical reaction
      Product- a substance that forms in a chemical reaction
      Matter-anything that has mass and takes up space
      Volume-a measure of the size of a body or region in three-dimensional space
      Mass-a measure of the amount of matter in an object; a fundamental property of an object that is not affected by the forces that act on the object, such as the gravitational force
      Weight- a measure of the gravitational force exerted on an object; its value can change with the location of the object in the universe
      Quantity- something that has magnitude, size, or amount
      Unit- a quantity adopted as a standard of measurement
      Conversion Factor- a ration that is derived form the equality of two different units that can be used to convert from one unit to the other 
      Physical property- a characteristic of a substance that does not involve a chemical change, such as density, color, or hardness
      Density –the ratio of the mass of a substance to the volume of the substance; often expressed as grams per cubic centimeter for solids and liquids and as grams per liter for gases
      Chemical Property- a property of matter that describes a substance’s ability to participate in chemical reactions
      Atom- the smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element
      Pure Substance- a sample of matter, either a single element or compound, that has definite chemical and physical properties

    Element- a substance that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substances by chemical means’ all atoms of an element have the same atomic number
      Molecule- the smallest unit of a substance that keeps all of the physical and chemical properties of that substance; it can consist of one atom or two or more atoms bonded together

    Compound- a substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds
      Mixture- a combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combined
      Homogeneous- describes something that has a uniform structure or composition throughout

    Heterogeneous- composed of dissimilar components
    Section 1 of Chemistry Notes Info.
    1. Working with the Properties & Changes of Matter
      • Chemical- any substance that has defined composition
      • Everything you see is made up of chemicals
      • Even things you cannot see are made up of chemicals
      • Some exist naturally
      • Some are manufactured
      • Chemical Reaction- the process by which one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances
    1. Physical States of Matter
      • Type and arrangement of particles in a sample of matter determine the properties of the matter
      • Most matter is one of the three states of matter
    A. Properties of the Physical State
    Solids- fixed volume and shape
    Rigid structure
    Liquids- fixed volume and variable shape
    Takes shape of container
    Gases- neither fixed volume or shape
    Particles move independently
    Will fill any container they occupy
    1. Changes of Matter
    Many changes of matter happen. Changes occur in two different ways:
    1.  
      • Physical Changes
      • Chemical Changes
    A. Physical Change
    Changes in which the identity of a substance doesn’t change
    -Changes state
    -Dissolving
    -Crushing
    B. Chemical Changes
    Identifies of substances change and new substances form.
    Mercury (II) oxide mercury + oxygen
    Reactants Products
    -Substance or molecule that -Substance that forms in a chemical
    participates in a chemical reaction reaction
    Atoms are not destroyed or created, so mass does not change during a chemical reaction.
    C. Evidence of Chemical Change
    Generally, evidence that a chemical change may be happening falls into one of four categories; you may observe more than one.
    1. Evolution of a gas- the production of a gas is often observed by bubbling or by a change in color
    2. Formation of a Precipitate- when two clear solutions are mixed and become cloudy, a solid precipitate has formed
    3. Release or Absorption of Energy- change in temperature of the giving off of light energy are signs of energy transfer
    4. Color Change in the Reaction System- look for a different color when two chemicals react
    Section 2 of Chemistry Notes Info.
    I. Density
    Matter has Mass & Volume
    1. Matter- Anything that has mass and takes up space
    2. The space an object occupies is its volume
      1. Volume—a measure of the size of a body or region in three-dimensional space
      2. The method used to determine volume depends on the nature of the matter being examined
    3. Quantity of Matter is Mass
      1. Mass- a measure of the amount of matter in an object. It is not affected by the gravitational force
      2. Balances measure mass usually in grams
      3. It is the same no matter where it is in the universe
    4. Mass is NOT Weight
      1. Weight- the force produced by gravity action on mass
      2. Its value can change with the location of the object in the universe
      3. Measured in Newtons
    II. Units of Measurement
    1. Mass & volume are properties that can be described in terms of numbers
      1. Numbers alone aren’t enough because their meaning might be unclear
      2. Units of measurement are needed with the numbers
    Quantity- something that has magnitude, size, or amount
    Unit- a quantity adopted as a standard of measurement
    1. System Internationale d’Units
      1. Seven base units
      2. Base units can be modified by attaching prefixes
    2. Derived Units
      1. Many quantities you can measure need units other than the seven basic SI Units
      2. These units are derived by multiplying or dividing the base units
    1. Properties of Matter
    Properties of substances may be classified as physical or chemical
    Physical Properties
    1. Characteristic of a substance that doesn’t involve a chemical change, such as density, color, or hardness
    2. Chemical Properties
      1. A property of matter that describes a substance’s ability to participate in chemical reactions
      2. Examples: reactivity with oxygen, sensitivity to light, exposure to heat
    3. Density
      1. Density- the ratio of mass to volume of a substance. Often expressed in grams/cm3 for solids and liquids and g/L for gases
    Density= mass/volume or D=m/v
    Section 3 of Chemistry Notes Info.
    1. Classifying Matter
    -From the last section:
    -Matter-anything that has mass and takes up space
    -All matter is composed of Atoms
    -Atom- the smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element
    Because matter exists in so many different forms, having a way to classify it is important for study.
    It helps you to predict what characteristics a sample will have based on what you know about others like it.
    Pure Substances- a sample of matter, either a single element or a single compound that has definite chemical and physical properties
    Element- a substance that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substances by chemical means; all atoms of an element have the same atomic number
    There are two types of pure substances:
    1.  
      1.  
        • Elements
        • Compounds
    1. Elements- are pure substances that contain only one kind of atom
      1. Has its own unique set of physical and chemical properties
      2. Has its own chemical symbol
      3. Molecule- the smallest of a unit of substance that keeps all of the physical and chemical properties that of the substance; it can consist of one atom or two or more atoms bonded together
      4. Diatomic elements- two of the same atom bonded together chemically
    1. Pure Substances
    -Some elements have more than one form
    -Allotrope- one of a number of different molecular forms of an element
    -Compounds are Pure Substances
    Compound- a substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds

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