November 2016 | Chemistry Notes Info - Your Chemistry Tutor provide notes for Classes, BSc, MSc, Chemistry Test

Science Quiz Part12

Science Quiz on Measuring Devices

Chemistry GK by www.ChemistryNotesInfo.com
Science Quiz, Chemistry Quiz, Chemistry GK, Chemistry MCQ, Science GK, Science MCQ, SPECTROPHOTOMETER
This Science Quiz part12 is based on different measuring devices or measuring instruments used in the field of Science.

1. Intensity of the light as a function of the wavelength is measured by:

Spectrometer
Spectrophotometer
Spectroscopy
Color Spectrophotometer


2. Properties of light is measured by:

Spectrometer
Spectrophotometer
Spectroscopy
Color Spectrophotometer


3. Seismic waves (during earthquakes) is measured by:

Seismic Waves Meter
Surface Buoys
Seismometer
Underwater Sensors


4. Amount of the sugar in a solution is measured by:

Saccharometer
Sugar Meter
Glucometer
Sugar Tester


5. Length is measured by:

Ruler
Insurance
Classes
Degree


6. Response to applied forces is measured by:

Watt-hour meter
Q meter
Rheometer
Rotameter


7. Sugar concentration of the sap & syrup is measured by:

Hygrometer
RF/Microwave
Refractometer
Hydrometer


8. Radiant flux of the electromagnetic radiation is measured by:

Radiometer
Electromagnetic Radiationmeter
Audiometer
Electrometer


9. Thickness of the deposited thin films is measured by:

QC Lab Microbalance
Standard Films Microbalance
Quartz Microbalance
Quartz Crystal Microbalance


10. High temperatures is measured by:

Thermometer
Pyrometer
Hygrometer
Pyranometer



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Science Quiz Part11

Science Quiz

Chemistry GK by www.ChemistryNotesInfo.com
This Science Quiz part11 is based on different measuring devices or measuring instruments used in the field of Science.
Science Quiz

1. Osmotic strength of the solution, colloid is measured by:

Osmosisindicator
pH Meter
Osmometer
Rotameter


2. pH is measured by:

Pyrometer
pH Meter
Ohmmeter
Berometer


3. Illuminance or irradiance is measured by:

Photometer
Light Meter
Quadrat
Load Cell


4. Rotation of polarized light is measured by:

Photometer
Light Meter
Quadrat
Polarimeter


5. Voltage is measured by:

Potentiometer
Orchidometer
Ohmmeter
Ammeter


6. Surface roughness is measured by:

Mass Spectrometer
Mass Flow Meter
Nephelometer
Profilometer


7. Angles is measured by:

Hydrometer
Protractor
Scale
Inkometer


8. Humidity is measured by:

Hydrometer
Glucometer
Psychrometer
Electrometer


9. Fluid density is measured by:

Potentiometer
Pycnometer
Psychrometer
Interferometer


10. Solar radiation is measured by:

Thermometer
Rotameter
Rular
Pyranometer




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Amino Acids

Amino Acids

Definition of Amino Acid

Amino acid is a simple organic compound that contains a carboxyl (—COOH) and an amino (—NH2) group.

What are Amino Acids?

Amino acids are organic compounds containing carboxyl (—COOH) and amino (—NH2) functional group with side chain, this side chain is specific to amino acid. Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen are some important element which present in amino acids. Some other elements may also present in side chain of some amino acids.

Importance of Amino Acids

As we all know that our body contains large amount of proteins also these proteins play important role in biological processes happening within human body. Amino acids are building blocks of these proteins means proteins contain amino acids.
Amino acids play key role in many body functions like cell structure, storage and transport of nutrients, proper functioning of organs, proper functioning of glands, proper functioning of arteries, proper functioning of tendons, healing of wounds, repairing tissues, removal of metabolic waste etc.

Amino Acids

There are so many amino acids present in nature but gene codes only 20 amino acid. Essential amino acids are type of amino acid which can not produced by human body so they are needed in dietary food. Two amino acids combines by a peptide bond to form dipeptide.
peptide bond
And amino acids further added to grow chain of peptides to form poly-peptide or protein.

Areas of use of Amino Acids

1. Anti-aging

Supply of amino acids to the body provides repair treatment means nourish human skin, nails and hair result in delay aging process naturally. Supply of amino acids strengthens connective tissue to keep our skin smooth, shine, glowing and elastic. Creatine play very important role to keep skin healthy and this creatine is made up of amino acids like Arginine and Methionine. Glutamine amino acid is responsible to regulate acid-base balance as a result it supports healthy skin. Carnitine is a di-peptide containing two essential amino acids lysine and Methionine. Carnitine helps in burning fat to produce energy so also known as fat burner so also added in fitness and wellness program.

2. Arthritis

Amino acid Methionine helps in cartilage formation, also Methionine is essential amino acid so do not get produced within human body but need to be provided from outside i.e. from diet or food. Methionine also donates sulphur which helps in joint cartilage creation. Along with amino acids vitamins and minerals are also required for healthy joints.

3. Cholesterol

Arginine amino acid helps in lowering the cholesterol level.

4. Diabetes

In diabetes person’s blood sugar level get high than normal level due to many reasons like pancreas do not produce enough insulin, insulin resistance etc. Amino acid Arginine help in reducing insulin resistance by increasing sensitivity of our body cells toward insulin so insulin get easily absorbed.

5. Fat Burning

Goal of weight loss is achieved by fat burning. Human growth hormone is an important fat burning hormone and amino acids Arginine, Glutamine and Methionine helps to secrete this hormone.

6. Hair and Nails

Amino acid Methionine prevents hair loss and strengthens nails. Amino acid Glutamine and Arginine increases hair growth.

Zwitterions

zwitterion
•    Below pH 2.2 amino acid have net charge of +1 due to the predominant form of amino acid have a neutral carboxylic acid functional group and a positive α-ammonium.
•    Above pH 9.4 amino acid have net charge of -1 due to the predominant form of amino acid have a negative carboxylate and neutral α-amino group.
•    At pH between 2.2 and 9.4 amino acid have net charge of ZERO due to the predominant form of amino acid have both a negative carboxylate and a positive α-ammonium functional group and this molecular state of amino acid is known as a Zwitterion.

Isoelectric Point

 Isoelectric point is a pH at which molecule carry zero net electric charge. In case of amino acids at pH between 2.2 and 9.4 amino acid have net electric charge of ZERO so this range of pH gives Isoelectric Point of Amino Acids as shown in below image.

List of Amino Acids

list of amino acids

Essential Amino Acids

Essential amino acids are amino acids which cannot be synthesized by the human body so these amino acids must be supplied in diet. The nine essential amino acids, which human body cannot synthesize are phenylalanine, Valine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Methionine, Leucine, Isoleucine, Lysine, and Histidine i.e. in one letter for amino acids are as follows- F, V, T, W, M, L, I, K, H.
Six additional amino acids are measured conditionally essential in the human diet. These six amino acids are Arginine, Cysteine, Glycine, Glutamine, Proline, and Tyrosine i.e. in one letter for amino acids are as follows- R, C, G, Q, P, Y.
Five amino acids are not essential in humans because they fully synthesized in the body. These five amino acids are Alanine, Aspartic Acid, Asparagine, Glutamic Acid, and Serine i.e. in one letter for amino acids are as follows- A, D, N, E, S.

List of Essential Amino Acids and Non-Essential Amino Acids

List of Essential Amino Acids and list of Non-Essential Amino Acids

Amino Acid Images





















Smartphone Chemistry

Chemistry of Smartphone

About 20 years before no one use smartphones but nowadays everyone have a smartphone. Apple iPhone 7 Plus, Google Pixel XL, Samsung Galaxy S7 Edge, LG G5, OnePlus 3, HTC 10 and Huawei Nexus 6P are examples of some popular smartphones. This article is all about chemistry behind smartphones by Chemistry Notes Info.
Smartphones Chemistry

Different Chemistry Elements in Smartphones

Typically smartphone contains many elements like Silver, Gold, Lithium, Praseodymium, Terbium, Yttrium, Gadolinium, Indium, Tin, Oxygen, Carbon, Copper, Tantalum, Silicon, Oxygen, Antimony, Arsenic, Phosphorus and Gallium.

Generally On Average a Smartphone Contains About 

  • 300 mg Silver (Ag having Atomic No. 47, Atomic Mass 107.87)
  • 30 mg Gold (Au having Atomic No. 79, Atomic Mass 196.97)
Battery- Generally smartphones have Li-Ion Battery, this battery have Lithium Cobalt Oxide as a +ve electrode and Carbon or Graphite as a -ve electrode. This -ve electrode release electrons which travel towards +ve electrode as a result provide power to your phone.
Screen- Screen contains following elements which provide color to screen to display visual content.
  •  Praseodymium (Pr having Atomic No. 59, Atomic Mass 140.91)
  • Terbium (Tb having Atomic No. 65, Atomic Mass 158.93)
  • Yttrium (Y having Atomic No. 39, Atomic Mass 88.91)
  • Gadolinium (Gd having Atomic No. 64, Atomic Mass 157.25)
 Touch- Touchscreen takes inputs from user and are transparent, all these are possible due to following elements
  • Indium (In having Atomic No. 49, Atomic Mass 114.82)
  • Tin (Sn having Atomic No. 50, Atomic Mass 118.71)
  • Oxygen (O having Atomic No. 8, Atomic Mass 16)
Wiring- Wiring or electrical circuits are made up of copper and capacitors are made up of Tantalum. Capacitor store regulate electricity and loose electrical charge in fraction of seconds.
  • Copper (Cu having Atomic No. 29, Atomic Mass 63.55)
  • Tantalum (Ta having Atomic No. 73, Atomic Mass 180.95)
Microchip- Microchip or CPU (Central Processing Unit) also called brain of smartphone is made-up of silicon, oxygen, antimony, arsenic, phosphorus and gallium. All these elements are used to produce highly conductive powerful microchips so you can play games, watch videos, click photos, use your phone camera for taking selfy, audio video recording, calling, chatting, using apps like whats app, facebook, twitter or whatsoever stuff you like to do with your smartphone is possible due to chemistry.
  • Silicon (Si having Atomic No. 14, Atomic Mass 28.09)
  • Oxygen (O having Atomic No. 8, Atomic Mass 16)
  • Antimony (Sb having Atomic No. 51, Atomic Mass 121.76)
  • Arsenic (As having Atomic No. 33, Atomic Mass 74.92)
  • Phosphorus (P having Atomic No. 15, Atomic Mass 30.97)
  • Gallium (Ga having Atomic No. 31, Atomic Mass 69.73)

What's Inside Your Smartphone

Smartphone chemistrySmartphone is made-up of different components which are assembled to make smartphones, like display (to show visual content), touchscreen (to take inputs from user), cameras (to take photos, selfy and to shoot videos), microphone (to receive audio or to record sound), case (body of phone), battery (to provide power), sim card slot (for sim), speakers (for sound, to listen music), sensors (for different purpose like ambient light sensor for light intensity means automatically set screen brightness according to surrounding light and ultimately save battery life, gyroscope and accelerometer to play video-games as these sensor tracks phone movement, digital compass to detect north direction for maps and nevigation, proximity sensor used to prevent unwanted touch commands by locking phone during phone call when you bring phone near your ear), motherboard (printed circuit board containing principal components of smartphone with connectors for other circuit boards to be slotted into), memory (to store data, movies, photos, videos, songs), transceiver (to transmit and receive communications), radio (to transmit data and to receive data), cell phone radio (that communicate with cell tower, when you make call) wifi radio (to download big files, movies songs etc and they consume less battery as they travel very less distance) bluetooth radio, NFS rado, GPS radio etc. all these components contain some chemical elements of periodic table and when all components are assembled they give you smartphone which you use daily.

Chemistry GK Part10

Science General Knowledge

Chemistry GK by www.ChemistryNotesInfo.com
This chemistry GK part10 is based on different measuring devices or measuring instruments used in chemistry and science.

Q1. Measurement of force is measured by
Load Cell

  • Load Meter
  • Mass Cell
  • Weight Cell
  • Load Cell
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q1: Load Cell

Q2. Intensity of light is measured by

  • Lux Meter
  • Light Meter
  • Photometer
  • Disdrometer
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q2: Lux Meter

Q3. The mass flow rate of a fluid traveling through the tube is measured by

  • Fluid Flow Meter
  • Volume Flow Meter
  • Mass flow meter
  • Volume Flow Gauge
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q3: Mass flow meter

Q4. ______ is used in measurement of strength of magnetic fields

  • Polometer
  • Bolometer
  • Magnetometer
  • Radiometer
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q4: Magnetometer

Q5. The masses of ions, used to identify chemical substance or chemical substances through their mass spectra is measured by

  • Optical Emission Spectrometer
  • Mass Spectrometer
  • Modular Spectrometer
  • UV-Visible Spectrometer
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q5: Mass Spectrometer

Q6. ____ device is used to measure electrical potential, resistance, and current

  • Multimeter
  • Potentiometer
  • Digital Multimeter
  • Analog Multimeter
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q6: Multimeter

Q7. _______ is use to measure atmospheric pressure

  • Atmosphere Barometer
  • Arab Barometer
  • Mercury Barometer
  • Air Barometer
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q7: Mercury Barometer

Q8. Device use to measure the speed and direction of clouds

  • Nephoscope
  • Nephoscoper
  • Mirror Nephoscope
  • Nefoscope
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q8: Nephoscope

Q9. ______ is use to measure electrical resistance

  • Chemical Resistance Meter
  • Shunt
  • Resistance Meter
  • Ohm Meter
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q9: Ohmmeter

Q10. Oscillations is measured by

    Science Quiz
  • Oscillator
  • Vectorscope
  • Oscilloscope
  • Oscillometer
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q10: Oscilloscope

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<= Chemistry GK Part9

Chemistry GK Part9

Chemistry MCQ

Chemistry GK by www.ChemistryNotesInfo.com
This chemistry GK part9 is based on different measuring devices or measuring instruments used in chemistry and science.

Q1. Fuel level is measured by

  • Speedometer
  • Fuel Scale
  • Fuel Meter
  • Fuel Gauge
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q1: Fuel Gauge

Q2. Electricity is measured by
Chemistry mcq

  • Ammeter
  • Galvanometer
  • Amplifier
  • Currentmeter
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q2: Galvanometer

Q3. Volume and density of solids is measured by

  • Dilatometer
  • Caliper
  • Densimeter
  • Gas Pycnometer
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q3: Gas Pycnometer

Q4. ______ is used in measurement of blood glucose (diabetes)

  • Glucometer
  • Blood Glucose Monitor or Glucose Tester
  • Glucose Meter
  • Glucometer or Glucose Meter
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q4: Glucometer and Glucose Meter

Q5. Specific gravity of liquids (density of liquids) is measured by

  • Fathometer
  • Thermometer
  • Hygrometer
  • Hydrometer
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q5: Hydrometer

Q6. ____ device is used to measure humidity

  • Dynamometer
  • Thermometer
  • Hygrometer
  • Hydrometer
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q6: Hygrometer

Q7. _______ is use to measure wave interference

  • Actinometer
  • Elaeometer
  • Interferometer
  • Load Cell
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q7: Interferometer

Q8. Device use to measure composition of gases

  • Heliometer
  • Inkometer
  • Katharometer
  • Lux Meter
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q8: Katharometer

Q9. ______ is use to measure specific gravity of milk

  • Gasometer
  • Lactometer
  • Milk Meter
  • Chemical Tester
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q9: Lactometer

Q10. Light in photography is measured by

  • Light Meter
  • Ellipsometer
  • Photometer
  • Light detector
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q10: Light Meter

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<= Chemistry GK Part8

Chemistry GK Part8

Chemistry General Knowledge

Chemistry GK by www.ChemistryNotesInfo.com
This chemistry GK part8 is based on different measuring devices or measuring instruments used in chemistry and science.

Q1. Structure of crystals is measured by

  • Crystal Gauge
  • Diffractometer
  • Diffractoscale
  • Dynamometer
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q1: Diffractometer

Q2. Size, speed, and velocity of raindrops is measured by

  • Rainmeter
  • Watermeter
  • Rain Gauge
  • Disdrometer
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q2: Disdrometer

Q3. Volume changes caused by any physical or chemical process is measured by

  • Dilatometer
  • Caliper
  • Densimeter
  • Volume Sensor
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q3: Dilatometer

Q4. ______ is used in measurement of rate of evaporation

  • Barometer
  • Heatingmeter
  • Evaporationmeter
  • Evaporimeter
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q4: Evaporimeter

Q5. Exposure to hazards, especially radiation is measured by

  • Polometer
  • Bolometer
  • Dosimeter
  • Radiometer
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q5: Dosimeter

measuring devices MCQsQ6. ____ device is used to measure force,torque or power

  • Dynamometer
  • Forcealyzer
  • Deltameter
  • Fathometer
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q6: Dynamometer

Q7. _______ is use to measure specific gravity of oils.

  • Actinometer
  • Elaeometer
  • Specificgravity Analyser
  • Densimeter
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q7: Elaeometer

Q8. Device use to measure pitch of musical notes is

  • Electronicmeter
  • Electronic tuner
  • DJ
  • Buffer
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q8: Electronic tuner

Q9. ______ is use to measure change in volume of gas mixture following combustion

  • Gasometer
  • Eudiometer
  • Electronicmeter
  • Electronic tuner
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q9: Eudiometer

Q10. Refractive index, dielectric function and thickness of thin films is measured by

  • Refractometer
  • Ellipsometer
  • Densimeter
  • Dielectrometer
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q10: Ellipsometer

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<= Chemistry GK Part7

Chemistry GK Part7

Chemistry GK

Chemistry General Knowledge

Chemistry GK by www.ChemistryNotesInfo.com

This chemistry GK part7 is based on different measuring devices or measuring instruments used in chemistry and science.

Q1. _________ is use to measure rain

  • Rain Gauge
  • Rainmeter
  • Rain Scale
  • None of the above
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q1: Rain Gauge

Q2. alcoholic strength of liquids is measured by

  • Alcoholmeter
  • Alcohol Gauge
  • Alcohol Scale
  • All of the above
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q2: Alcoholmeter

Science GK Q3. Radiation of item is measured by

  • Curiemeter
  • Caliper
  • Dosimeter
  • Radiationmeter
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q3: Dosimeter

Q4. ______ is used in measurement of tanning liquors used in tanning leather

  • Barometer
  • Barkometer
  • Tanningmeter
  • Leathermeter
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q4: Barkometer

Q5. Electromagnetic radiation is measured by

  • Polometer
  • Bolometer
  • lectrometer
  • Radiometer
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q5: Bolometer

Q6. ____ device is used to measure breath alcohol content

  • Breathmeter
  • Breathalyzer
  • Breathchecker
  • Alcometer
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q6: Breathalyzer

Q7. _______ is use to measure heat of chemical reactions

  • Actinometer
  • Heatchecker
  • Heat Analyser
  • Calorimeter
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q7: Calorimeter

Q8. Device use to measure color is

  • Coloranalyzer
  • Alcohol
  • Colorimeter
  • Colorsensor
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q8: Colorimeter

Q9. ______ is use to measure specific gravity of liquids

  • Density Analyzer
  • Gravimeter
  • Densimeter
  • Potentiometer
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q9: Densimeter

Q10. Degree of darkness in the photographic and/or semitransparent material is measured by

  • Electrometer
  • Gravimeter
  • Densimeter
  • Densitometer
Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q10: Densitometer

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<= Chemistry GK Part6

Density

DENSITY

Density of many samples is measured in labs for example in unites states oil and gas industry, they define density in general way as 'weight per unit volume' although 'weight per unit volume' is not density it is 'Specific Weight' so density is 'mass per unit volume'. Density is also known as "Volumetric Mass Density". Generally different materials have different density. Chemical element Osmium (Os having atomic number 76) is naturally occurring densest element. To simplify the comparison of densities of different materials or liquids it is needed to replace density with "relative density" as relative density is dimensionless quantity. Relative Density is also called "Specific Gravity". Specific gravity or relative density is the ratio of density of sample material to the density of standard material. Generally water is taken as standard material. If we take water as standard material than if we get relative density of a material is less than '1' means that material floats in water. Water has highest density at 4 °C i.e. 1000Kg/m3.
Density of material depends on the temperature and pressure. Effect of temperature and pressure is very less on solid and liquid but effect of temperature and pressure is very high on gases. If we increase pressure on given material than its volume get decrease that result in increase in density, similarly If we decrease pressure on given material than its volume get increase that result in decrease in density. And in case of temperature, if we increase temperature on given material than its volume get increase that result in decrease in density, similarly if we decrease temperature on given material than its volume get decrease that result in increase in density. But their are some exceptions which do not follow these rules, one of them is water means when temperature of water decreases than it makes solid ice which float on liquid water as ice have less density than liquid water i.e. Density of ice is 916.7 Kg/m3 at 0 °C, and water has a density of 999.8 Kg/m³ at 0 °C.

Definition of Density

                           Density of a material is defined as its mass per unit volume.

Symbol of Density

                             Symbol of density is 'ρ' or 'D' and pronounces as 'rho'.

Formula of Density

                             Density = Mass/Volume
or,
           ρ = m/V
where,
           ρ is density, m is mass and V is volume.
  • When numerator (mass) is much larger than denominator (volume) in density formula, that shows the given substance has higher density, but when denominator (volume) is much larger than the numerator (mass), that shows the given substance has lower density.

SI Unit of Density

                             SI Unit of Density is Kg/m3 or g/cm3

Instruments used to measure Density

Hydrometer and Thermometer is used to measure the density of liquids.
Hydrometer to measure Density
Hydrometer


Hydrometer dip in mineral oil and engine oil to measure the Density of these samples
Hydrometer dip in mineral oil and engine oil to measure the Density of these samples


Density Chart

Material
Density (Kg/m3)
Remark
Air
1.2
At sea level
Milk
1027 to 1033
At 20 oC
Honey
1420
At 20 oC
Coconut Oil
925
At 15 oC
Cotton Seed Oil
926
At 16 oC
Olive Oil
918
At 15 oC
Sunflower Oil
919
At 20 oC
Rice Bran Oil
918
At 20 oC
Groundnut Oil
913
At 20 oC
Liquid Hydrogen
70
At about -255 oC
Ice
916.7
At 0 oC
Fresh Water
1000
At 4 oC
Plastics
1175
Approx for PVC
Glycerol
1261
Also called Glycerine or Glycerin
Aluminium
2700
Chief ore of Aluminium is Bauxite
Diamond
3500
Precious stone
Zinc
7000
Zinc is found in cells throughout the body.
Iron
7870
Used since ancient times
Cobalt
8900
Found in the Earth's crust only in chemically combined form
Nickel
8900
Silvery-white lustrous metal
copper
8940
Very high thermal and electrical conductivity
Silver
10500
Highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity
Lead
11340
Soft, malleable, and heavy metal
Mercury
13546
Only metallic element that is liquid at room temperature
Uranium
18800
weakly radioactive because all its isotopes are unstable
Iridium
22420
Densest naturally occurring element
Osmium
22570
Densest naturally occurring element


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