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Analytical Chemistry

Analytical Chemistry

Definition of Analytical Chemistry- Analytical Chemistry is the branch of chemistry deals with the study of material examination to separate out them into different components and identifying all components and how much these components present in material. There are different analytical methods and techniques to perform these tasks.
 Analytical Chemistry

What is Analytical Chemistry ?

Analytical chemistry is all about, what an analytical chemist do in an analytical chemistry lab. And simply we can say that analytical chemistry is the branch of chemistry for qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis of compounds and mixtures by using different test methods and techniques like flame tests, chemical tests, precipitation, titration, chromatography, spectroscopy, separation, microscopy etc.

Types of Analytical Methods

Analytical chemistry uses two types of methods for analysis that are classical and modern methods. Classical methods are wet chemical methods while modern methods are instrumental methods. Classical analytical methods are further subdivided into two categories i.e. 1. Classical Qualitative Analytical Methods and 2. Classical Quantitative Analytical Methods. Similarly, Modern analytical methods are further subdivided into two categories i.e. 1. Modern Qualitative Analytical Methods and 2. Modern Quantitative Analytical Methods.

     A.  Classical Analytical Methods

1.   Classical Qualitative Analytical Methods

Classical qualitative analytical methods uses precipitation, extraction, and distillation for separation purpose and differences in color, odor, melting point, boiling point, reactivity for identification purpose.
Some of the classical qualitative analytical methods are given below-

     a)  Flame Test
b)  Chemical Test

2.   Classical Quantitative Analytical Methods

Classical quantitative analytical methods uses change in mass and volume for quantification of amount of particular analyte in analytical sample.
Some of the classical quantitative analytical methods are given below-

     a)  Gravimetric Analysis
b)  Volumetric Analysis

     B.  Modern Analytical Methods

1.   Modern Qualitative Analytical Methods

Modern qualitative analytical methods uses chromatography, electrophoresis for separation purpose and uses instruments for identification purposes.

2.   Modern Quantitative Analytical Methods

Modern quantitative analytical methods uses different instruments for quantitative analysis. These instruments are based on the principles of light or heat interaction, electric or magnetic fields. Generally a single modern instrument is enough for separation, identification and quantification of an analyte.

 Modern analytical methods uses different instruments so we can say that modern analytical methods are Instrumental methods. And some of them are given below-

          a)  Spectroscopy
      b)  Mass Spectrometry
      c)  Electrochemical Analysis
     d)  Thermal Analysis
     e)  Chromatography
      f)  Electrophoresis
     g)  Microscopy



What is an Analytical Chemist ?        

Analytical chemist is a chemical scientist who have all knowledge about analytical chemistry with other branches of chemistry like physical, organic and inorganic chemistry. They works in chemical labs or analytical chemistry laboratories to analyses different chemical compounds and mixtures.

What does an analytical chemist do ?

Analytical Chemist analyses samples to find out different analytes. They do different experiments in chemical labs to know about exact chemical component present in sample. Analytical chemist get all information from a sample means what that sample contains and how much contains. Nowadays analytical chemist do different researches to make analysis quick and more accurate by the use of modern techniques and modern equipment and advanced software’s.


Where does an analytical chemist work ?

Analytical chemistry work in chemical labs and analytical chemistry labs, means they conduct their experiment inside labs and then come back to analytical labs offices to interpret with experimental data.

Do you know ?

What is an analytical balance?

what is Analytical Balance
Analytical balance is a lab-instrument used to determine mass of any matter very precisely. These analytical balances are very sensitive and expensive lab-instruments, and also upon the accuracy and precision of analytical balance the accuracy of lab-analysis result depends so handle these balances very carefully. Generally used analytical balances are balances with the capacity of 100 gram to 200 gram and the sensitivity of 0.1 miligram to 0.001 miligram. For any quantitative chemical analysis there is need of analytical balance for the weighing of sample for analysis and weighing of reagents for solution preparation. Analytcal balance pan used to put sample on it is enclosed in a glass-fitted case, means analytical balance sensitivity requires that it to be protected by the draft shield or enclosure...read more.

Chemistry

What is Chemistry?

It is the branch of science which deals with the study of composition, properties and interaction of matter.

Definition of Chemistry

Chemistry is the scientific study of matter and substances for how they combine, separate, react or interact with each other.

Types of Chemistry

Chemistry is generally (as per basic chemistry) classified into three classes i.e. Physical chemistry, Organic chemistry and Inorganic chemistry. 

1. Physical Chemistry

Physical chemistry is the branch of chemistry. Physical Chemistry utilizes applications of physics to chemical systems to understand their physical properties.
Physical chemistry is the study of atomic, subatomic, macroscopic, microscopic or particulate phenomena in chemical systems in terms of different laws and concepts of physics. Physical chemistry applies the principles and concepts of physics such as thermodynamics, force, time, energy, motion, statistical mechanics, quantum chemistry, dynamics and equilibrium.
Physical properties of different type of chemical substances can be studied on different scales like atomic, subatomic, macroscopic and microscopic........ read more 

2. Organic Chemistry

Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry which involve the scientific study of structure, properties & reactions of organic species, compounds or organic materials, means matter have various forms found that contains carbon atoms. Study of structure of organic chemistry compounds includes use of spectroscopy techniques like IR Spectroscopy, Microwave Spectroscopy, NMR Spectroscopy, Mass Spectroscopy, X – Ray Diffraction, Electron Diffraction, Neutron Diffraction and other physical and/or chemical type of methods to examine chemical composition and chemical constitution of the organic chemistry compounds and materials to be analysed. This is article on what is organic chemistry at “chemistry notes info blog”. Study of properties of organic compound includes study of both physical properties as well as chemical properties of organic chemistry compounds, which uses the similar methods and also methods to evaluate the chemical reactivity to understand behavior of organic matter (organic sample) in its pure form (if when possible), otherwise in solution, mixture forms. Study of chemistry of organic reactions includes the searching their possibility through use in the preparations of goal molecule or compounds like natural products, medicinal drugs, polymers, solvents, etc.) by their chemical synthesis, also focused on the study of  reactivity’s of the individual organic molecules.... read more 

3. Inorganic Chemistry

Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry, which deals with the study of inorganic compounds and organo-metallic compounds. Inorganic chemistry includes study of all chemical compounds excluding organic compounds (where, organic compounds are carbon based compounds, generally having carbon-hydrogen bonds i.e. C-H bonds. 

Example of Inorganic Compound

Salt Magnesium Chloride (MgCl2) is an ionic Inorganic Compound which contains magnesium-cations Mg2+ and chloride-anions Cl

Branches of Inorganic Chemistry

Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry
Descriptive inorganic chemistry based on the arrangement and ordering of compounds based on their properties.

Coordination Chemistry

Coordination chemistry is the branch of Inorganic chemistry which deals with the study of coordination compounds or coordination complexes. A coordination compound or coordination complex contains of a central atom or ion, which is generally metallic and is known as coordination center, and get surrounded by group of bounding molecules or ions, these surrounding molecules and ions are known as ligands.

Materials Science

Material science deal with the study of materials. Study of metals, semiconductors, polymers, ceramics, nanomaterials, biomaterials and many other form of materials comes under material science. A material scientist........... read more 

4. Analytical Chemistry

Analytical Chemistry is the branch of chemistry deals with the study of material examination to separate out them into different components and identifying all components and how much these components present in material. There are different analytical methods and techniques to perform these tasks.

What is Analytical Chemistry ?

Analytical chemistry is all about, what an analytical chemist do in an analytical chemistry lab. And simply we can say that analytical chemistry is the branch of chemistry for qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis of compounds and mixtures by using different test methods and techniques like flame tests, chemical tests, precipitation... read more

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Inorganic Chemistry

Inorganic Chemistry

What is Inorganic Chemistry ?

Definition of Inorganic Chemistry- Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry, which deals with the study of inorganic compounds and organometallic compounds. Inorganic chemistry includes study of all chemical compounds excluding organic compounds (where, organic compounds are carbon based compounds, generally having carbon-hydrogen bonds i.e. C-H bonds.

Example of Inorganic Compound

Salt Magnesium Chloride (MgCl2) is an ionic Inorganic Compound which contains magnesium-cations Mg2+ and chloride-anions Cl

Branches of Inorganic Chemistry

Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry
Descriptive inorganic chemistry based on the arrangement and ordering of compounds based on their properties.

Coordination Chemistry

Coordination chemistry is the branch of Inorganic chemistry which deals with the study of coordination compounds or coordination complexes. A coordination compound or coordination complex contains of a central atom or ion, which is generally metallic and is known as coordination center, and get surrounded by group of bounding molecules or ions, these surrounding molecules and ions are known as ligands.

Materials Science

Material science deal with the study of materials. Study of metals, semiconductors, polymers, ceramics, nanomaterials, biomaterials and many other form of materials comes under material science. A material scientist study about any material to find out its structure, properties and use this in certain applications.

Bioinorganic Chemistry

Bioinorganic Chemistry is the branch of inorganic chemistry which deal with study of different metals in biological system. Bioinorganic chemistry deal in both natural field (like study and application of metalloproteins etc.) and artificial field (like study, application and development of medicines). Bioinorganic chemistry is the mixture of biochemistry and inorganic chemistry.

Organometallic Chemistry

Organometallic chemistry is the branch of inorganic chemistry which deal with the study of chemical compounds having at least one bond between a Metal and carbon atom of organic compound. Organometallic compounds are broadly used in research, industrial chemical reactions, catalysis to increase the rates of reactions.

Cluster Chemistry

Cluster chemistry is the branch of inorganic chemistry which deals with the study of clusters. Cluster forms when atoms or molecules bound together to form large size substances whose size is intermediate in between the size of a molecule and a bulk solid. Example of cluster- fullerene cluster from carbon atoms and borane cluster from boron atoms.

Physical Chemistry

Physical Chemistry


What is Physical Chemistry ?

Definition of Physical Chemistry- Physical chemistry is the branch of chemistry. Physical Chemistry utilizes applications of physics to chemical systems to understand their physical properties.

Physical chemistry is the study of atomic, subatomic, macroscopic, microscopic or particulate phenomena in chemical systems in terms of different laws and concepts of physics. Physical chemistry applies the principles and concepts of physics such as thermodynamics, force, time, energy, motion, statistical mechanics, quantum chemistry, dynamics and equilibrium.

Physical properties of different type of chemical substances can be studied on different scales like atomic, subatomic, macroscopic and microscopic.

Atomic

Atomic properties are properties related to atoms or elements. Atomic numbers, atomic weight, oxidation state, electron per shell, electronic configuration, and atomic radius are example of atomic properties.

Atomic Properties of Element Carbon

  • Chemical Symbol: C
  • Atomic Number: 6
  • Atomic Weight (Relative Atomic Mass), u (g/mol): 12.0107
  • Oxidation States: -4, +2, +4
  • Electrons Per Shell: K2 L4
  • Electronic Configuration: 1s22s22p2
  • Atomic Radius, pm: 67

Subatomic

Subatomic properties are properties related to study of subatomic particles and research on energy and waves. This is part of advanced physical chemistry or nuclear chemistry.

Microscopic

Microscopic properties are properties related to microscopic level like shape and structure of crystals and molecules with the use of light microscopes, electron microscopes, and scanning probe microscopes

Macroscopic

Macroscopic properties are properties of substances which describe how relatively large quantities of the substance behave as a group, for example melting points (M.P.) and boiling points (B.P.), vaporization and latent heats of fusion, specific heat capacity, thermal conductivity, coefficient of linear thermal expansion and many other physical properties.
For example water exist in three states i.e. Solid-Ice, Liquid-Water, Gas-Steam. When we cool steam it turns into water and on further cooling water convert into ice.

Branches of Physical Chemistry

Physical chemistry have many branches some of them are described below-

Electrochemistry

Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry which deals with the studies of relationship between electricity and chemicals.

Photochemistry

Photochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry which deals with the chemical effects of light. Photo-Chemistry describes chemical reaction caused by absorption of ultraviolet radiation (wavelength from 100 to 400 nm), visible light (400 – 750 nm) or infrared radiation (750 – 2500 nm).

Thermochemistry

Thermochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry which deals with the study of the energy and heat associated with chemical reactions and physical transformations.

Spectroscopy

Spectroscopy is the branch of physical chemistry which deals with the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.

Chemical Kinetics

Chemical Kinetics is the branch of physical chemistry which deals with the study of rates of chemical processes. Chemical Kinetics is also known as Reaction Kinetics,

Quantum Chemistry

Quantum chemistry is the branch of physical chemistry which deals with the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and chemical systems. Quantum chemistry is also known as molecular quantum mechanics.

Surface Chemistry

Surface science is the branch of science which deals with the study of physical and chemical phenomena which occurs at the interface of two phases. Surface science includes the fields of surface chemistry and surface physics.

Solid-State Chemistry

Solid-state chemistry is the branch of physical chemistry which deals with the study of structure, synthesis, and properties of solid phase materials. Solid-state chemistry also known as materials chemistry.

Biophysical Chemistry

Biophysical chemistry is the branch of physical chemistry which deals with the uses of concepts of physics and physical chemistry for the study of biological systems.

Molarity vs Molality

Molarity vs Molality
what is molality

What is Molarity? 

Molarity is also known as molar concentration, it is the ratio of moles of substance to volume in liter.
Where mole is weight in gram divided by molecular weight.
Molarity is chemistry terminology.

Molarity (M) :- 

                                No. of moles of the solute  / Volume of the solution in liter.
    M = strength in gram per liter / Molar mass of the solute
Unit =>   M = Moles/L

What is Molality? 

It is the ratio of moles of substance to kilogram of solvent.
Where mole is weight in gram divided by molecular weight.
Molality is chemistry terminology.

Molality (m) :- 

                                No. of moles of the solute  Mass of solvent in Kilogram (Kg).
   
Unit =>   m = Moles/Kg
 Molarity vs Molality Chemistry Infographics
Molarity vs Molality Chemistry Infographics

Video on Molarity vs Molality

  

Molarity vs Normality

Molarity vs Normality

What is Molarity ? 

Molarity is also known as molar concentration, it is the ratio of moles of substance to volume in liter.
Where mole is weight in gram divided by molecular weight.
Molarity is chemistry terminology.

Molarity (M) :- 

                                No. of moles of the solute  / Volume of the solution in liter.
    
M = strength in gram per liter / Molar mass of the solute
Unit =>   M = Moles/L

What is Normality ?

 Normality is the ratio of gram equivalent weight to volume of solution in liter
where gram equivalent is the measure of reactive capacity of molecule consider for normality.

Normality (N) :- 

                                Gram equivalent weight  / Volume of the solution in liter.

Unit =>   N = "eq/L" (equivalent per liter)


Still have any doubt then view this Chemistry Info-graphics for
What is the difference between Molarity and Normality ?

Molarity vs Normality
Molarity Vs Normality Chemistry Infographics

Extra Knowledge About Molality

What is Molality? 

It is the ratio of moles of substance to kilogram of solvent.
Where mole is weight in gram divided by molecular weight.
Molality is chemistry terminology.

Molality (m) :- 

                                No. of moles of the solute  / Mass of solvent in Kilogram (Kg).
   
Unit =>   m = Moles/Kg

I think now you can easily differentiate between these terms means now you have answer of these two general questions i.e. 
What is the difference between Molarity and Normality ?
What is the difference between Molarity and Molality ?

Still dont know then view this Chemistry Info-graphics for
What is the difference between Molarity and Molality ?

 Molarity vs Molality Chemistry Infographics
Molarity vs Molality Chemistry Infographics

 

Chemistry Notes in Hindi Medium

हिंदी माध्यम में रसायन विज्ञान नोट्स

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A. First visit our website www.chemistrynotesinfo.com 

B. Right hand side in the page, below Blog Archive, a language converting tab is given with name - Translate our Notes in your Language

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