January 2016 | Chemistry Notes Info - Your Chemistry Tutor provide notes for Classes, BSc, MSc, Chemistry Test

10th Class- Metals and Non-Metals Part- 3

10th Class Chapter- Metals and Non-Metals

Occurrence of Metals

                                              Maximum metals occur in earth’s crust and some metal occur in sea water. Metals and its compounds exist as minerals and if the percentages of metals in minerals are large then they are known as ores.

1.    Extraction of Metals

Reactivity series is very helpful in metal extraction as metals present at the bottom of reactivity series are least reactive so found in Free State like gold, silver and platinum found in Free-State. Metal at top is most reactive and metals in the middle are also reactive so found in combined form. Metals generally found as oxides, sulphides and carbonates on earth’s crust.
Steps involved in extraction of metals from ores-
Steps involved in extraction of metals from ore

Steps involved in Extraction of Metals from Ores


2.    Enrichment of Ore

     The process of removal of impurities or gangue from ore, before extraction of metal is known as enrichment of ore.
Gangue is terminology used for impurities like sand, soil etc. present in ore.

3.    Extracting Metals Low in Reactivity Series (or Activity Series)

                                                                                          Metals present at bottom (or low position) in activity series are very unreactive and can be obtained in pure metallic form by just heating alone.
Example- Cinnabar (HgS), ore of Mercury (Hg)
          2HgS (s) + 3O2 (g) + heat ---------> 2HgO (s) + 2SO2 (g)
          2HgO (s) + Heat ------------> 2Hg (l) + O2 (g)
          Cu2S, ore of copper (Cu)
          2Cu2S + 3O2 (g) + Heat ---------> 2Cu2O (s) + 2SO2 (g)
2Cu2O + Cu2S + Heat ----------> 6Cu (s) + SO2 (g)

4.    Extracting Metals in Middle of Activity Series

 Metals in middle like iron, zinc, lead etc. are moderately reactive and present as sulphides or carbonates. Metals can be easily extracted from its oxides so sulphides and carbonates are reduced to oxides. Then these metal oxides are reduced to corresponding metal by using suitable reducing agent like carbon.


                   It is a process of converting sulphide ores into oxides by heating strongly in the presence of excess air.
          2ZnS (s) + 3O2 (g) + Heat --------> 2ZnO (s) + 2SO2 (g)


                                It is a process of converting carbonates ores into oxides by heating strongly in the presence of limited air.
ZnCO3 (s) + Heat ----------> ZnO (s) +CO2 (g)

Oxide Reduction

                                 Oxides of ores are reduced to metal by using suitable reducing agent like carbon (Coke), or highly reactive metals.
ZnO (s) + C (s) ---------> Zn (s) + CO (s)
3MnO2 (s) + Al (s) -----------> 3Mn (l) + Al2O3 (s) + Heat

5.    Extracting Metals at Top of Activity Series

Metals present at top in activity series are very reactive and they are not obtained by heating their compounds with carbon, for example Sodium, Calcium, Magnesium, Aluminium etc. cannot be obtained by reducing with carbon as these metals have more affinity for oxygen than carbon. So these metals are obtained by electrolytic reduction.
          In electrolytic reduction, the metals get deposited at cathode (-ve electrode) and gas like chlorine get liberated at anode (+ve electrode)
Reaction for molten Sodium Chloride-
At Cathode :-     Na+ + e- -------> Na
At Anode :-       2Cl-  -------> Cl2 + 2e-

Refining of Metals

                                 Refining of metals are done to obtain metals in very pure form by removing impurities present in it. Electrolytic refining is widely used method for this purpose.

Electrolytic Refining

                                      Electrolytic refining is the method of obtaining very pure metals from impure metal. Metals like copper, zinc, nickel, silver, tin, gold etc. are refined electrolytically.
In electrolytic refining, anode (+ve) is made from impure metal and cathode (-ve) is made from thin strip of pure metal. Metal salt solution works as an electrolyte. When we applied electric current across the electrodes then current starts flow through electrolytic solution. Pure metal comes out from anode and dissolve in electrolyte and equivalent amount (i.e. to that comes from anode) of this pure metal from electrolyte solution get deposited on cathode.
“In simple way we can say that pure metal come from anode and get deposited on cathode by using electrolyte solution and electric current.”
Insoluble impurities settle down below anode at bottom and we say it as anode mud, while soluble impurities mix in electrolyte.


                   Natural process of conversion of refined metal to its high stable form like oxides or hydroxides of metals is known as corrosion. Corrosion is the process of gradual destruction of any material like metals by environment and chemical reaction.
Example - Rusting of Iron

Prevention of Corrosion

                                                There are so many methods to prevent corrosion like-

1.    Applied Coating

                             Applied coating is surface treatment method. Planting, enamel application and painting are applied coating method to prevent corrosion. These methods create barrier between metal and environment.

2.    Anodization

                      It is anode surface treatment process in which we made thicker oxide layer at metal surface.

3.    Galvanization

                         Galvanization is the process of coating steel and iron with very thin layer of zinc to protect them from rusting.

Overall painting, greasing, oiling, chrome plating, galvanizing, alloy making and anodizing are some ways for the prevention of corrosion. 

Media Filling Process

 Media Filling Process in Pharma Industry

Material issue as per FO (Formulation Order)
Material Verification
Media fill process
Material transfer into critical area (sterile lactose)
Liquid media preparation
Resealing of lactose bags
Check pH
Dispensing and blending with intervention simulation
Sterilize the m/c parts, rubber stoppers , dispensing aids, media garments and bin
m/c parts assembling ( filling) , bin , connection on the day of media filling
Media filling parts assembling and liquid media connection to filling m/c
Vial washing and sterilization

Media Checking for Growth

  •  Lactose and liquid media filling stoppering
  •  Sealing, crimping of aluminum seal ( sample for sterilize media for GPT, vials , rubber stoppers , compressed air sterility test / viable commit  monitoring)
  • Eternal vial washing m/c
  • Visual inspection m/c
  •  Online leak testing m/c
  •   Labeled tray with date / time and other details
  • Collect the vials in tray, transfer and handover to micro dept. for incubation through temp. controlled van (truck)

 Preparation of Media

·       Prepare 3% solution of media
·       30gm SCDM (soybean casein digest media) + 1000ml (qs) of wfi (Water For Injection) dissolve in glass carboy.
·       Collect the media sample for pH testing using pH meter and adjust the pH if require.
·       Labeled the media , date of preparation and exp date of media should be 7 days from the date of mfg (Manufacturing Date).
·       Plug the carboy with cotton plug and wrap with breathable cloth sterilize the carboy glass.
·       After sterilization unload the glass carboy in cooling zone and store under UAF on SS table (Stainless Steel Table).
·       Transfer the media carboy to vial filling room through the UAF mounted mobile trolley.
·       End of operation collect the media solution from each carboy and send to micro lab for GPT.
·       Incubate the media in micro lab for 7 days at 20C to 25C followed by 7 days at 30C to 35C.
·       Record the observation in microbiology validation green sheet.


          Growth Promotion Test, to insure that the liquid media used for the process simulation test is capable of microbial growth promotion.

Lactose Powder

                              Sterilized by gamma radiation method Lactose transfer in critical area
·       Gamma radiation sterilized powder of lactose => qc (quality Control) released => clean with lint free wipe
·       Outer carton and polybag removed in material transfer airlock
·       Pack sanitized and enter into pass box
·       Critical area
·       Lactose bags shall open inside the RABS (restricted access barrier system)

Dispensing Procedure

·       Lactose passes through mesh 36 over the ss-bin using the spoon
·       Load the bin on mixing column
·       Blend for 30 min
·       Unload the bin and transfer it into RABS
·       Remaining quantity also passed by same procedure
·       Quadruplet sampling carried out from 10 location (don’t take out sample only simulate)
·       Simulate pulled sample collection from 3 location (twice) for bulk analysis
·       Transfer the bulk containing lactose for vial filling operation

Assembling Vial Filling m/c Parts

·       Assembled the liquid media filling parts ( peristaltic pump with needles and silicon hose )
·       SS bin containing sterilize lactose
·       Upload it with lifting column
·       SS bin connect to powder hopper chute of vial filling m/c
·       Assembling the pre end post air flushing assembly
·       Insure that vials are flushed with sterile ( filtered ) compressed air during the filling process
·       30/40 ml vial – 50ml volume ( 250mg lactose) filled
·       100ml vial – 10ml volume ( 500mg lactose) filled
·       Minimum vial quantity to be put for incubation in each media fill operation shall not be less than 10,300 vials ( applicable for all pack sizes )
·       Record the collection time of media filled vials on each tray / boxes and affix the label

USE of Sterilize Lactose

·       Flow ability through the hopper and dosing wheel is similar to the product manufacture
·       It does not inhibit the growth of microbes and has growth promotion activity
·       Soluble in media and water
·       Sterilized by gamma radiation

Incubation Period

·       7 days ( bacterial growth ) – 20 to 25C
·       7 days ( viral growth ) – 30 to 35
·       Total 14 days incubation.
         1.  30/40ml vials 5500 to 6500 vials/hrs., lactose filled using single dosing mechanism      
            2. 100ml vials 2500 to 3500 double dosing wheel mechanism

Post Media-fill Activity

·       Clean and sanitize the equipment (used for media fill activity)
·       The final rinse sample (from product contact part) should be analyses for TOC
·       The TOC in the rinse water sample shall not exceed 500ppb
Tubular vial
Bromobutyle rubber stopper
Flip off

Media-fill Failure

·       In case of media fill failure respective procedure of OOS ( out of specification) in microbiological analysis , investigation , deviation management shall be followed
·       Characterization of microorganism up to species level shall be carried out to find out the sources of contamination
·       Environmental records for manufacturing and testing area for temp. RH , DP and non-viable air born particle counts
·       Microbiological monitoring, reports of manufacturing and testing area for settling plate air sampling, surface monitoring and personnel monitoring.

10th Class- Carbon and its Compounds Xth Class Chemistry Notes Part-1

Class 10th Chapter - Carbon and Its Compounds

·             Instead of gaining and loosing electrons, carbon shares its 4-electrons with another element or carbon to form molecule.
·             Covalent bonds are formed as a result of sharing of electrons. Example- H2, O2, N2. Covalent compounds have low melting point and boiling point due to small intermolecular forces.
·             H2 forms by sharing valence electrons (1 per atom of H) and produce single bond between two hydrogen atoms.
·             O2 forms by sharing valence electrons (2 per atom of O) and produce double bond between two oxygen atoms.
·             N2 forms by sharing valence electrons (3 per atom of N) and produce triple bond between two nitrogen atoms.
·             Methane, CH4 is simple carbon compounds and used as a fuel on large scale and also a major component of CNG (Compressed Natural Gas). Methane formed due to sharing of 4 valence electrons of carbon with 4 hydrogen atoms.

Allotropes of Carbon

                                  Carbon have three allotropes i.e. Diamond, Graphite and fullerene.

1.    Diamond:-

                Diamond formed due to rigid three dimensional structures of carbon atoms because each carbon atom bonded to another 4 carbon atoms. It is hardest substance.

2.    Graphite:-

               Graphite formed due to presence of hexagonal array layers above one another, and layers of hexagonal arrays formed because each carbon atom bonded to another 3 carbon atoms with 2 single and 1 double bond. It is smooth, slippery and very good conductor of electricity.

3.    Fullerenes:-

                 Fullerenes (C-60) are also an allotrope of carbon in which carbon atoms are arranged in football like shape.

Versatile Nature of Carbon

                                              Carbon shows versatile nature because it has two characteristics features which are catenation and tetravalency. These both feature gives large numbers of compounds.

1.    Catenation:-

                  Catenation is the property of carbon atom to form bond with other carbon atom to produce large molecule. Catenation produces large long chains, branched chains and ring structures.
Compounds with single bonds are known as saturated compounds while compounds with double or triple bonds are known as unsaturated compounds.

2.    Tetravalency:-

                      Property of carbon atom to form 4 bonds with other atom of carbon or other element is known as tetravalency, as carbon have four valence electrons.

Saturated and Unsaturated Carbon Compounds

1.    Saturated Carbon Compounds:-

                                                 Carbon compounds containing single bond is called saturated Carbon Compounds.
Example- Ethane, C2H6

2.    Unsaturated Carbon Compounds:-

                                                       Carbon compounds containing double or triple bond is called unsaturated Carbon Compounds.
Example- Ethene, C2H4

Chains, Branches and Rings

                                             Carbon is the element which forms chains, branches and rings in its structures.

1.    Chains:-

            Carbons have property to form chains, when one carbon atom attach to another carbon atom like chains.
Example- Ethane(C2H6), Propane(C3H8), Butane(C4H10), Pentane(C5H12), Hexane(C6H14).

2.    Branches:-

               Carbon forms branches when one and two carbon attach to carbon chain.
Example- Butane

3.    Rings:-

          Carbon forms rings when all carbon atoms attach to one another means first carbon chain atom attach to last carbon chain atom giving ring structure.
Example- Cyclohexane(C6H12)

Alkane, Alkene and Alkynes

                                              As we know hydrocarbons are the carbon compounds containing carbon and hydrogen.

1.    Alkane:-

                 Saturated hydrocarbons containing single bonds are known as alkanes.
Example- Ethane (C2H6)

2.    Alkene:-

                 Unsaturated hydrocarbons containing double bonds are known as alkenes.
Example- Ethene (C2H4)

3.    Alkyne:-

                  Unsaturated hydrocarbons containing triple bonds are known as alkynes.
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