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Top 10 Chemistry Websites

List of Top 10 Chemistry Websites

Given below is the list of top ten chemistry websites. These top 10 chemistry websites are the best websites to learn chemistry as these chemistry sites provide all chemistry conten in literature and also explain topics via images, videos and 2D - 3D diagrams, charts and many more innovative education tools to clear your doughts. We are also developing our content to provide best of us in your services.
List of Top Ten Chemistry Websites
Top 10 Chemistry Websites

1. Wikipedia

Wlikipedia is free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia contains so many articles related to chemistry. Wikipedia do not charges any fees to users to read articles and it have large collection of information related to chemistry.

2. NIST Chemistry WebBook

NIST have great Database of chemical and physical properties. Large searches on NIST are given below- General and Physical Property Based Searches
•    Formula
•    Name
•    IUPAC identifier
•    CAS registry number
•    Reaction
•    Author
•    Structure
•    Ion energetics properties
•    Vibrational and electronic energies
•    Molecular weight

3. Chemicool

Chemicool Periodic Table provide information related to Periodic Table and Elements. On home page of Chemicool you see a periodic table, when you click on any element in this periodic table you get a new webpage which shows chemistry information related to that element. For example if you click on H i.e. Hydrogen element than you get information about its ‘Data Zone- Classification, Color, Atomic weight, State, Melting point, Boiling point, Electrons, Protons, Neutrons in most abundant isotope, Electron shells, Electron configuration, Density @ 20oC and more’, Discovery, Facts, Appearance and Characteristics, Uses, Abundance and Isotopes, References.

4. The Molecule of the Month

The Molecule of the Month website added a molecule to its database monthly and publish it on its website.

5. Some Chemistry Stuff

This website is very useful as it contain great chemistry stuff, which is classified in following categories-

A Virtual Chemical Element Collection

This part contain photos and information for so many elements like Carbon, Fluorine, Chlorine, Technetium, Promethium and many others.

Home Chemistry Experiments

This part contain interesting chemistry experiments.

Atomic Spectra

This part contain information and resources to download windows program, which is useful to draws Atomic Spectra of elements.

More Chemistry Links

This part contain information and links to some helpful Chemistry-Websites.

6. Science Geek

Science Geek is also another good chemistry website which provide PowerPoint Presentation and Videos related to chemistry. 

7. Chalkbored

Chemistry 11

It is very useful website for  chemistry students of Schools, because this website teaches students with worksheets, labs, handouts, and Power-Point presentations.

Chemistry 12

It is very useful website for  chemistry students of Schools, because this website teaches students with worksheets, labs, handouts, and Power-Point presentations.

8. eMolecule

eMolecule is a good website to draw structure of chemicals or molecules online.
WebElement is an another important chemistry website for the periodic table of the elements. On WebElement website you get information from these pages- The essentials, Contents, History, Uses, Crystal structures, Physics, Thermochemistry, Atoms, Atom and ion sizes, Electronegativity, Geology, Biology, Compounds, Chemistry, Compound properties, Isotopes.
ChemTutor provides chemistry help for high school, college and university students to learn chemistry. ChemTutor have large collection of topics related to chemistry.
Royal Society of Chemistry leads chemistry community and advancing excellence in the chemical sciences. Royal Society of Chemistry promote, support and celebrate chemistry.

BSc1Year Mathematical Concepts

BSc 1st Year Mathematical Concepts

Mathematics For Chemist

Mathematics for chemist or general mathematics needed in chemistry include chapter of basic mathematics of upto class 10 and some chapters of higher classes like Vectors, Matrices and Linear Algebra, Differential Equations, Differenciation, Intigration, Group Theory.
maths for chemistry
Maths For Chemist


Vector is a quantity having magnitude and direction. example- Force, Weight etc.


Its singular form is Matrix, It is a rectangular array of numbers or symbols and these numbers and symbols are arranged in rows and columns and one can perform operation on it as per defined rules to solve matrices.

Linear Algebra

Linear Algebra is a mathematical tool to define any thing in 2D ( Two Dimensional) but may be extended to 3D, 4D,5D..... so on as per requirement.

Differential Equations

Differential Equations is an mathematical equation which involvs derivatives of a function or functions.


Differenciation is process or action of differentiating.


Intigration is process or action of intigrating.

Group Theory

Group Theory is a tool to analyse any thing or system which have symmetry and posseses symmetry element.

Vitexin - MSc Chemistry: Subject- Chemistry of Natural Products


Vitexin is a naturally occuring compound of FLAVONOID family and also known as Apigenin Flavone Glucoside or Apigenin-8-C-glucoside. Vitexin have Molecular weight of about 432.38 gm/mole with molecular formula C21H20O10.
 Vitexin (Apigenin Flavone Glucoside or Apigenin-8-C-glucoside ) is obtained from Passion flower, Chaste tree and also present in Phyllostachys Nigra Bamboo Leaves and also found in many other plant or special parts of plants. Vitexin inhibits Thyroid Peroxidase enzyme. Other similar compound like vitexin is Isovitexin which is apigenin-6-C-glucoside while vitexin is apigenin-8-C-glucoside. Vitexin should be stored in desiccator.

States of Water H2O

States of Water ( H2O)

·         Water exists in three state i.e. Solid (Ice), Liquid (Portable Water, Sea Water, Drinking Water etc.), Gas ( Steam, Vapours).
·         In these three states water has different physical properties but same chemical composition i.e. H2O
·         Also characteristics of these states of water depend on the molecular energy and how molecules aggregate.
·         As molecules changes its physical state ( from liquid to gas, gas to liquid, solid to gas etc.) there is no change in chemical properties of the substance but some changes may occur in rate of chemical reaction.
Photos of different states of Water
1. Solid => Ice

2. Liquid => Drinking Water

3. Gas => Steam

12 Class Chapter 16 - Chemistry In Everyday Life

Chemistry In Everyday Life


                    Drugs that binds to the receptor site and inhibits its natural function is known as antagonists.


               Drugs that mimic the natural messenger by switching on the receptor is called as agonists.


               Its example is Metal Hydroxide.


                        Its example is Terfinadine, Cimetidine. Histamine stimulates the secretion of pepsin and HCl in stomach.

Neurological Active Drugs


                       Chemical compound used for the treatment of stress or severe mental diseases. These relive anxiety, stress, irritability, depression, tension by inducing a sense of well being. Examples- Iproniazid,  Equanil, Barbiturates are hypnotic that is sleep producing agents.


                 These drugs reduce or abolish pain without causing mental confusion, paralysis and some other disturbances. Example- Asprin, Analgin, Paracitamol.
Narcotics Analgesics are Morphine, Heroine.


                   These drugs inhibit the growth of microorganisms or kill the microorganisms. Example- Penicillin, Tetracycline, Imipenam, Meropenam, Ampicillin, Chloramphinicol.


                  Furacine, Soframycine, Dettol (Chloroxylenol + Terpinol), Bithional.


                     Apply to lifeless objects. Chlorine(0.2 to 0.4 ppm), SO2 in low concentration. 
NOTE: "0.2% solution of phenol is antiseptic while its 1% solution is disinfectant."

Antifertility Drugs

                                Drug used to control population. Example- Norethindrone, Novestrol.

Food Preservative

                                Prevent spoilage of food due to microbial growth. Example- Sodium Benzoate, table salt.

Gold Number

                      It is the calculation of the weight of the protective colloid in milligram to be added to 10 ml of gold solution to prevent its coagulation when 1 ml of 10% of NaCl solution is added to it rapidly.
For more online classes and degree notes visit  our website regularly to get updated with new topic everyday.

9 Class- Periodic Table of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements

More than 115 elements have been discovered which need to be arranged systematically, first elements were classified as metals and non metals.

History of classification of elements

1.     Prout’s Hypothesis – 1815
2.     Dobereiner’s Triads – 1829
3.     Newland’s Law of Octaves – 1863
4.     Lother Meyer Curves – 1869
5.     Mendeleev’s Periodic Table – 1869
6.     Modern Periodic Laws of Moseley -1913
7.     Modern Periodic Table ( of 18 columns ) 

 Prout’s Hypothesis

                                    According to this hypothesis atomic mass of elements is multiple of mass of hydrogen atom. So elements are related to each other on the basis of their atomic masses. It fails due to the reason that some elements do not have atomic mass in whole no. (Like chlorine have atomic mass of 35.5).

Dobereiner’s Triads

                                    According to Dobereiner’s triads elements arranged in the group of three elements so that atomic mass of central element is appropriate mean of 1st and 3rd element. These groups of three elements are known as Dobereiner’s triads.
 Li                Na                  K
Atomic Mass                                              
7                 23                  39
Mean of Atomic Masses of 1st and 3rd elements  is (7+39)/2  =   46/2   =  23
Drawback of Dobereiner’s triads : All elements are not arranged in triads.

Newland’s Law of Octaves

According to Newland’s Law of Octaves elements arranged in the group of 8 elements and every 8th element is similar to the 1st element.
Li         Be         B        C          N         O           F
Na        Mg       Al        Si         P          S          Cl 

Drawback of Newland’s Law of Octaves :

Heavy elements do not follow this law, inert gases disturb the order of octave.

Lother Meyer Curves

                                       In 1869, Lother Meyer derived following conclusion by obtaining information from graph between the atomic weight at x-axis and atomic volume at y-axis.
1.     Elements which have similar properties found on the same position on the graph curves.
2.     All alkali metals like Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Fr found at highest peak of curve.
3.     Halogens like F, Cl, Br and I are found on ascending portion of curve.
4.     Alkaline earth metals like Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra are found on descending portion of curve.
5.     Elements which do not melt easily like Be, B, C, Al, Si, Cu etc. are found at lowest point of curve.

On the basis of above conclusions Lother Meyer give periodic Law:
                                                                                                  According to Lother Meyer periodic law – “Atomic volume of elements are periodic function of their atomic weights”.

Periodic Table

                        To classify elements a chart is prepared in which elements are arranged in rows and columns. These elements are arranged in table in such a way that the elements with similar properties are repeat after some intervals; also elements with similar properties are put in same column below one another. In periodic table vertical columns are called group while horizontal rows are called periods. In periodic table this repetition of properties in regular interval is known as periodicity. Read below chemistry notes of periodic table like Mendeleev periodic table, Mosley periodic table, Modern periodic table etc.

Mendeleev’s Periodic Table

                                                In Mendeleev’s Periodic Table, Mendeleev classify elements according to their atomic masses and arranged these elements in table according to their increasing order of atomic masses.

Mendeleev’s Periodic Law

                                                According to Mendeleev’s Periodic Law – “Physical and chemical properties of elements are periodic function of their atomic masses”.
Mendeleev’s Periodic Table contains seven horizontal rows known as periods and nine vertical columns known as groups.

Groups of Mendeleev’s Periodic Table

1.     In original Mendeleev’s Periodic Table only 8 groups present because Zero group contains noble gases is added later after discovery of noble gases.
2.     So, total vertical column is 9 including group 1 to 8 and Zero group.
3.     Group 1 to 7 are divided into two subgroups (A and B) each.
4.     In eighth group, three elements found together in each period (from fourth period onward) known as transition triplet.

Periods of Mendeleev’s Periodic Table

1.     Mendeleev’s Periodic Table has seven periods.
2.     First period is known as very short period because contain only two elements.
3.     Second and Third period is known as short period because contain only 8 elements each.
4.     Fourth and Fifth period is known as long period because contain 18 elements each.
5.     Sixth period is known as very long period because contain 32 elements each, 18 elements in table and remaining 14 elements called Lanthanides (from atomic no. 58 to 71)
6.     Seventh period is known as incomplete period because it contains only 24 elements and some places are left vacant for elements as they are not known yet. 10 elements in the table and remaining 14 elements called Actinides (from atomic no. 90 to 103) placed outside at bottom of periodic table.

Demerits of Mendeleev’s Periodic Table

These below points are some Demerits of Mendeleev’s Periodic Table
1.     Position of Hydrogen: Hydrogen is placed in 1st as well as in 7th group because its properties are similar to both groups, which is not explained well.
2.     Elements which have similar properties are placed apart in different groups.
Example: Copper and Mercury with similar properties placed in group first and second.
3.     Elements with different properties are placed in one group.
Example: Coin metals like Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs.
4.     Atomic weights are not kept in serial order.
Example: Argon with higher atomic weight 39.948 is placed before potassium, which have lower atomic weight of 39.102
5.     Position of isotope is not proper because all isotopes of elements are placed in one group though the atomic weights of isotopes are different.
6.      Eighth group elements position is not appropriate because elements put in triplet form.
7.     Rare earth elements (Lanthanides and Actinides) position is not proper so they placed outside at bottom of periodic table.

Modern Periodic Law and Modern Periodic Table

                                                                                   Moseley in 1913, after doing many experiments comes to a conclusion that the elements should be arranged as per their atomic no. and not according to atomic masses. As atomic no. is fundamental property of all elements of periodic table. So Mosley gives a new law which is called is Modern Periodic Law.

Modern Periodic Law

                                         According to Modern Periodic Law- “Physical and Chemical properties of elements are periodic function of their atomic numbers”.

Long Form of Periodic Table

                                                     Bohr Bury invented new periodic table, which is called as Long Form of Periodic Table. This Long Form of Periodic Table is also known as Modern Periodic Table.

Special features of Modern or Long Form of Periodic Table

These below are Special features of Modern or Long Form of Periodic Table
1.     18 vertical columns known as groups.
2.     Horizontal rows known as periods.
3.     Light metals – These are elements of periodic table of group 1 and 2.
4.     Heavy metals or Transition metals - These are elements of periodic table of group 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12.
5.     Non-Metals – These are elements of periodic table of group 13, 14, 15, 16 and 17.
6.     Zero group – These are elements of periodic table of group 18.

Properties of periods

1.     All periods start with alkali metal and end with noble gases.
2.     If we see table, it is very clear that from 1st to 7th period there is an addition of one shell in the each period like n=1,2,3,4,5………………

Properties of groups

1.     In any group, outermost shell electron are known as valance electrons and these electrons are same so main properties of elements of group is similar.
2.     Elements are divided into four blocks, which is s, p, d, f   according to valance electrons.
3.     s-block elements – elements of 1 and 2 group.
4.     p-block elements – elements of 13 to 18 group.
5.     d-block elements – elements of 3 to 12 group.
6.     f-block elements – elements of the Lanthanide and Actinide series.
7.     Representative Elements – elements of s-block and p-block collectively called as Representative elements also known as Normal elements or Typical elements.
8.     Transition Elements – elements of d-block.
9.     Inner Transition Elements – elements of f-block, also known as Rare Earth Elements.
10.                         Alkali Metals – elements of 1st group.
11.                         Alkaline Earth Metals – elements of 2nd group.

Solution for the demerits of Mendeleev’s Periodic Table in the Long Form of Periodic Table (or Modern Periodic Table)

1.     Mendeleev’s Periodic Table contains some heavy elements placed before lighter elements, this problem is solved automatically in Modern Periodic Table
2.     All isotopes of an element have same atomic number so no need to place them separate.
3.     All inert gases (or noble gases) got their appropriate place in zero group (or 18th group).
4.     Mendeleev’s Periodic Table have problem with 8th group but it is resolved in Modern Periodic Table as it is divided into three groups.

Drawback of Modern Periodic Table

1.     Position of Hydrogen is still not clear in Modern Periodic Table.
2.     Position of f-block elements (Lanthanides and Actinides) is not proper as these placed at bottom, separately from periodic table that is impractical.

Periodic Properties of the Elements

Periodic properties are the properties of the elements which depend on their electronic configuration and these properties changes on moving down in the group and on moving left to right in the period of the periodic table. Some periodic properties are atomic size, electron affinity, ionization energy, metallic and non metallic properties etc. are the main periodic properties.

Atomic Size

                        Size of any atom is explained with the help of atomic radius.

Atomic Radius

                        The distance between outermost shell electrons and centre of nucleus of isolated atom is called atomic radius.

There are two hypotheses for the calculation of atomic radius i.e.

1.     Van der Waals Radii

It is the one half of the distance between the two adjacent atoms nuclei centres, is known as Van der Waals radii.

Van der Waals radii is calculated as follows, first calculate the distance from the centre of nuclei of one atom to centre of nuclei of another adjacent atom in solid state of same substance. Then divide this distance by two. Van der Waals distance is represented by Angstrom A.

Where, 1 A = 10-8 cm.

2.     Covalent Radii

It is the one half of the distance between the diatomic molecule nuclei centres, is known as Covalent Radii.

Covalent radii is calculated as follows, first calculate the distance from the centre of nuclei of one atom to centre of nuclei of another atom in diatomic molecule containing covalent single bond. Then divide this distance by two.

  Isolated Atom

                        Isolated atom is an absolutely alone single atom.

  Periodicity in Atomic Size

  In Period: On moving left to right in any period atomic size decreases because atomic radii decreases, As electrons are attracted towards nucleus due to increasing nuclear charge.

  In Group: On moving down in any group atomic size increases because atomic radii increase, as more electrons shells added.

  An ionic radius of cation is smaller than its normal atom while that of anion is larger than its normal atom.

  Cations are formed by loss of electron or electrons and carry positive charge.

  Anions are formed by gain of electron or electrons and carry negative charge.

  Ionization Energy

                                    The energy required for the removal of one electron from the isolated atom in gaseous state is called ionization energy.

  Ionization Energy is represented by I.E.

  Ionization Energy is expressed in Electron Volts per Atom or Kilo Joules per Mole or Kilo Calorie per Mole. Ionization Energy is also known as Ionization Potential.

  Equation for I.E.

  Atom (g) + Ionization Energy (I.E.) ---à Cation + Electron (e-

  Removal of further electron from cation is difficult so value of Ionization Energy kept on increasing.

  I.E.1 < I.E.2 < I.E.3 < I.E.4 …………………………………..

  Periodicity in I.E. (Ionisation Energy)

  In Period: On moving left to right in any period ionization energy increases because nuclear charge increases with the increasing atomic number, so more energy required to remove electron. Therefore value of I.E. increases on moving left to right in any period.

  In Group: On moving down in any group ionisation energy decreases because atomic size increase, as more electrons shells added.

  Electron Affinity

                                    The amount of energy release as a result of addition of electron in any atom in gaseous state to form anion is known as Electron Affinity.

  Electron Affinity is represented by E.A.

  Electron Affinity is expressed in Electron Volts per Mole or Kilo Joule per Mole

  Values of all electron affinity are negative except first Electron Affinity which is positive.

  Periodicity in E.A. (Electron Affinity)

  In Period: On moving left to right in any period the value of Electron Affinity increases because atomic size decreases so amount of energy released is more.

  In Group: On moving down in any group the value of Electron Affinity decreases with some irregularities.

  Metallic and Non-Metallic characters

 In Period: On moving left to right in any period Metallic character decreases and Non Metallic character increases.

  In Group: On moving down in any group Metallic character increases and Non Metallic character decreases.

  In Periodic Table: Metallic elements are found on left hand side and Non Metallic elements are found on right hand side.


                  The elements which are neither metals nor non metals are known as metalloids.

  Example of Metalloids: B, Si, As, Te etc.
Periodic table of elements
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