10 Class - Acids, Bases and Salts part-2 | Chemistry Notes Info - Notes for 9, 10, 11, 12, BSc, MSc, Science Quiz, Chemistry GK, Infographics

10 Class - Acids, Bases and Salts part-2

10th Class Chapter- Acids Bases and Salts

 pH Scale:-

It is a scale to measure hydrogen ion concentration in solution.
Meaning of ‘p’ in ‘pH’ is “potenz”, which is a German word whose meaning is “power”.
pH scale measure pH from 0 (very acidic) to 14 (very alkaline).
pH of Neutral Solution is 7
pH of Acidic Solution is less than 7
pH of Basic Solution is more than 7

 What is acid rain?

If pH of rain water is below 5.6 on pH scale than, that rain is called as acid rain.

Some Naturally Occurring Acids:-

Natural Source
Acid
Vinegar
Acetic Acid
Orange
Citric Acid
Tamarind
Tartaric Acid
Tomato
Oxalic Acid
Sour Milk (Curd)
Lactic Acid
Lemon
Citric Acid
Ant Sting
Methanoic Acid
Nettle Sting
Methanoic Acid

Common Salt:-

Common salt is very important raw material for production of other daily use material.

Sodium Hydroxide:-

Sodium Hydroxide is obtained by passing electricity through aqueous solution of sodium chloride (brine). Process is known as Chlor-Alkanization.   
2NaCl (aq) + 2H2O (l) ----> 2NaOH (aq) + Cl2 (g) + H2 (g)

Bleaching Powder (CaOCl2):-

Bleaching Powder is obtained by reaction between chlorine (Cl2) and dry slaked lime [Ca(OH)2].
Ca(OH)2 + Cl2 -----> CaOCl2 + H2O

Use of Bleaching Powder:-

·       For bleaching wood pulp in paper industry.
·       For bleaching washed clothes in laundry.
·       For bleaching cotton and linen in textile industry.
·       Used as oxidizing agent in chemical industry.
·       Used as disinfectant for drinking water to kill germs.

Baking Soda:-

Chemical name of baking soda is sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3). It is obtained by reaction between Sodium Chloride (NaCl), Water (H2O), Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Ammonia (NH3).
NaCl + H2O + CO2 + NH3 ----> NH4Cl (Ammonium Chloride) + NaHCO3 (Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate)

Uses of Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate:-

·       To produce baking powder {mixture of baking soda + mild edible acid (like tartaric acid)}
·       Used to produce antacids (neutralize access acid in stomach to provide relief from acidity)
·       Used in soda acid fire extinguishers

Washing Soda:-

Washing soda is obtained by heating baking salt (Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate) and recrystallization of Sodium Carbonate produced above.
2NaHCO3 (Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate) + Heat --------> Na2CO3 (Sodium Carbonate) + H2O + CO2
Na2CO3 + 10H2O --------> Na2CO3.10H2O

Uses of Washing Soda:-

·       Used in glass, soap and paper industries
·       Used in preparation of sodium compounds like borax
·       Used as cleaning agent
·       Used for removal of permanent hardness of water


Crystal of Salt:-

Presence of fixed no. of water molecules in one formula unit of salt is called as water of crystallization.
·       Copper sulphate crystals with water molecule (CuSO4.5H2O) are blue in color, while
·        Copper sulphate crystals without water molecule (CuSO4) are white in color.

Plaster of Paris:-

Plaster of Paris is obtained by heating gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) at 373K.
CaSO4.2H2O (Gypsum) + Heat ----> CaSO4.1/2H2O (Plaster of Paris) + 3/2H2O

Uses of Plaster of Paris:-

·       Used by orthopedic doctors for supporting fractured bones.

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