Fire and Safety | Chemistry Notes Info - Your Chemistry Tutor provide notes for Classes, BSc, MSc, Chemistry Test

Fire and Safety

FIRE AND SAFETY

It takes three things to cause a fire:
Heat - or something that is hot
Fuel - or something that will burn
Oxygen - the air that is all around us

Fire Triangle = Heat + Oxygen + Fuel

Fire Tetrahedron = Heat + Oxygen + Fuel + Chain Reaction

If we remove any one side of the triangle, the fire cannot take place.
by doing these activities-
Cooling: Remove the HEAT sources, and there is nothing hot to start the fire.
Starvation: Remove the FUEL sources, and there is nothing to burn.
Smothering: Remove the OXYGEN and the oxidation reaction stops.

Method of Extinguishment

Cooling- Removal of heat. (Best cooling media is water)
Smothering- Reducing % of oxygen. Cutting off the supply of oxygen. (Blanketing, Use foam)
Starvation- Removal of fuel or removal of combustible material.

Fire Classification: A, B, C, D, E

A: Solid Combustible Substances –wood, paper, plastic, coal etc.
B: Flammable Liquids – petrol, diesel, paint etc.
C: Flammable Gases – LPG, hydrogen, acetylene etc.
D: Metal Fire – Mg, Al, Na etc.
E: Electric Fire – Electric and Electronic equipment.

Fire Extinguisher


  1. Foam Type
  2. Dry Chemical Powder DCP and
  3. Carbon Di-Oxide

Foam Type Extinguisher:

It is a powerful flame knockout agent for contained Flammable and volatile liquid fires involving like petrol, paints and other solvents. Foam extinguishers are used to form a thick blanket of foam over the burning surface, effectively cutting off the oxygen supply there by smothering the fire and prevent re-ignition. Foam extinguishers are effective against ‘A’ & ‘B’ class of fire.

Dry Chemical Powder Extinguishers:

These are versatile and highly effective against ‘B’ & ‘C’ class fires, specially for combating three dimensional or running fires involving spilled inflammable liquids on ground like petrol, paints and gases. They can also be used on Energized Electrical Equipment’s.

Carbon Di-Oxide Fire Extinguisher: 

Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing media is highly effective against ‘B’ & ‘C’ class of fire. They can also be used on Energized Electrical Equipment’s.
What should you do if your clothes catch on fire?
Stop -> Drop -> Roll
If someone else is on fire:

  • Make sure they don’t run
  • Use a blanket to smother the fire
  • Put water on them to put out the fire

  • You can prevent your clothes from catching on fire by not getting too close to fire, take utmost care on carrying out hot jobs.

  • If you want to rescue yourself in a smoke filled area do not walk/run, crawl on the floor instead. Do not use Lift. Use stairs, rush to the windows/doors.
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